National Geographic : 1963 Apr
Progress in Viking Land: New Map of Scandinavia N NORWAY men carve out a road to North Cape on the Barents Sea-and now a car can reach Europe's northernmost point, although it must travel 40 of the last 64 miles by ferry. In Sweden the atom goes peacefully to work-creating light and heat for a section of Stockholm. In Denmark, where there is a saying that "the pig hangs onto the cow's tail," some seven million pigs annually fatten on skim milk to become the bacon and other fine pork products for which the nation is famous. But today industrial products-machinery, tex tiles, metals, and chemicals-account for the majority of exports. To show the changing, prospering land of the Viking, the National Geographic Society's latest Atlas Series Map, Scandinavia,* sup plements this issue of the magazine, which also features a comprehensive article on Sweden (preceding pages). From Iceland to a Red Frontier The 11-color map includes Norway, Swe den, Denmark, Finland-all in the northern tier of free Europe. Technically "Scandina via," a name of obscure Nordic origin, applies only to Norway and Sweden. By language and culture, however, Denmark, Iceland (Inset A), the Faeroe Islands (Inset B), and part of Fin land are considered Scandinavian. To the east and southeast the pink-shaded border of the Soviet Union curves like a jagged scimitar, enclosing the once-free lands of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. The 1938 boundary of the U.S.S.R. also appears. Nor way today faces 112 miles of Soviet border, while Finland shares 788 miles. On the map Norway appears almost as one great mountain, culminating in 8,097-foot Galdh0piggen. Barren rock, laced with rac ing streams and crowned with numerous glaciers, covers three-fourths of the country. Cultivation occupies a scant three percent of the land. But Norway produces and uses more hy droelectric power per capita than any other nation-8,000 kilowatt hours per year; Can 492 ada ranks second with 5,000 kwh. Linking the iron-rich north and industrial south, a recently completed 452-mile railway snakes from Bod0 to Trondheim. Sweden and Finland, mantled by forests, together provide two-fifths of Europe's news print. Profiting from geography, the Finns have interwoven their 55,000 lakes with ca nals to float timber from forest to mill. After World War II Finland industrialized rapidly, and now exports lift trucks, cranes, and other heavy machinery throughout the world. Iceland, a former Danish colony that be came an independent republic in 1944, nudges the Arctic Circle 650 miles west of Norway. It lives mainly by fishing. Glaciers, sand, and lava cover its uninhabited central plateau. Hot springs puddle the land, heating homes and enabling greenhouses to grow such tropi cal plants as bananas. Geysir, which gave its name to all other geysers, erupts near Thingvalla Lake. The Danish Faeroe Islands lie 400 miles west of Norway. Of the small archipelago's 35,000 inhabitants-mostly fishermen and shepherds-many descend from Norse set tlers of a thousand years ago. Only a handful of technicians at a weather station people Norway's Jan Mayen Island (Inset C), 350 miles northeast of Iceland. Al most as far north, on the mainland, some 30,000 Lapps emulate their nomadic ances tors, herding reindeer and fishing. In Scandinavia crops of barley, rye, and potatoes grow north of the Arctic Circle, thanks to the Gulf Stream system that warms the shores and tempers the winds sweeping across northernmost Europe. *Scandinavia is the 37th uniform-size map issued by the Society in the past five years; it becomes Plate 34 in the Atlas Series. A convenient Folio binds the maps; it may be ordered from the National Geographic Society, Dept. 68, Washington 6, D. C., at $4.85. Single maps, 50 cents each; a packet of the 35 maps issued from 1958 through 1962,$10.50; the 35 maps and Folio, $14.00 . Farmhouses cling to the slopes of Geiranger Fjord reaching 57 miles into southern Nor way. Mothers tether children to keep them from tumbling down cliffs. Ice Age glaciers carved Scandinavia's coastline. This arm of the sea gives its name to the village at its head. KODACHROMEBY LOUIS RENAULT, PHOTORESEARCHERS,INC. © N.G.S.