National Geographic : 1963 Apr
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC WASHINGTON, D. C. 75TH ANNIVERSARY 1888-1963 <1, Organized"for the increase and RATED diffusion of geographicknowledge" The National Geographic Society is chartered in Washington, D. C., in accordance with the laws of the United States, as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization for increasing and diffusing geographic knowledge and promoting research and exploration. The Society has conducted more than 200 expeditions and scientific projects. It disseminates knowledge to millions through its world-famous National Geographic, its 23 million color maps a year, its books, mono graphs, bulletins for schools, its information service for press, radio, and television. Articles and photographs of travel, natural history, and expeditions to far places are desired. For material used, generous remuneration is made. MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, President and Editor MELVIN M. PAYNE, Executive Vice President and Secretary ROBERT V. FLEMING, Vice President and Treasurer FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Vice President and Associate Editor ROBERT E. DOYLE, Vice President and Associate Secretary THOMAS M. BEERS, Vice President and Associate Secretary VERNON H. BREWSTER, WM. T. BELL, HERBERT T. HENDERSON, C. VERNON SANDERS, Associate Secretaries ARTHUR B. HANSON, General Counsel COMMITTEE FOR RESEARCH AND EXPLORATION LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Chairman ALEXANDER WETMORE Vice Chairman Rear Adm. L. O. COLBERT HUGH L. DRYDEN A. REMINGTON KELLOGG Research Associate, Smithsonian Institution Vice Adm. EMORY S. LAND T. DALE STEWART Director, Museum of Natural History Smithsonian Institution MATTHEW W. STIRLING Research Associate Smithsonian Institution CONRAD L. WIRTH WILLIAM E. WRATHER and the Senior Officers of the Society BOARD OF TRUSTEES GILBERT GROSVENOR, Chairman of the Board, formerly President, National Geographic Society, and Editor of its magazine (1899-1954) THOMAS W. McKNEW, Vice Chairman of the Board, formerly Executive Vice President and Secretary (1932-1962) ROBERT B. ANDERSON WALTER K. MYERS, M.D . Secretary of the Treasury, 1957-61 Physician LEONARD CARMICHAEL MELVIN M. PAYNE Secretary, Smithsonian Institution Executive Vice President L. O . COLBERT National Geographic Society Rear Admiral, U. S. Coast LAURANCE S. ROCKEFELLER and Geodetic Survey, Retired Chairman of the Board, Rockefeller HUGH L. DRYDEN Brothers, Inc., and President Deputy Administrator, National Jackson Hole Preserve Aeronautics & Space Administration JUAN T. TRIPPE ROBERT V. FLEMING President, Pan American Chairman of the Board World Airways Riggs National Bank CRAWFORD H. GREENEWALT FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH Chairman of the Board, E. I. du Pont Assoc. Editor, National Geographic de Nemours & Company EARL WARREN MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Chief Justice of the United States Editor, National Geographic ALEXANDER WETMORE EMORY S. LAND Research Associate Vice Admiral, U. S. Navy, Smithsonian Institution Retired, formerly President LLOYD B. WILSON Air Transport Association Honorary Board Chairman, Chesa CURTIS E. LEMAY peake & Potomac Telephone Co. Chief of Staff, U. S. Air Force CONRAD L. WIRTH H. RANDOLPH MADDOX Director, National Park Service Vice President, American Tele- U. S. Department of the Interior phone & Telegraph Company (Ret.) WILLIAM E. WRATHER BENJAMIN M. McKELWAY Director, U. S . Geological Editor, the Washington Star Survey, Retired TRUSTEE EMERITUS: LYMAN J. BRIGGS Formerly Director, National Bureau of Standards Asst. Secretaries: HERMAN J. A. C . ARENS, CHARLES P. BIXEL, OWEN R. ANDERSON. Asst. Secretary and Asst. Treasurer: HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON. Asst. Treasurer: WM. H . McCAULEY HERMAN J. A . C . ARENS, Executive Assistant, LEONARD J. GRANT, Editorial Assistant, and Gail H. Carroll, Secretary to the President and Editor; Sibyl Peck, Assistant to the Chairman of the Board; Lenore W. Kessler, Secretary to the Vice Chairman of the Board 4 COVER: Battered by wind and wave, 70-gun Resolution rides out a storm. English men-of-war fought three wars with Holland between 1652 and 1674 (page 517). PAINTINGBY WILLEMVAN DE VELDETHE YOUNGER © N.G .S. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, Editor MELVIN M. PAYNE, Executive Vice President FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Associate Editor FRANC SHOR, Senior Assistant Editor EDITORIAL STAFF Assistant Editors:Robert L. Conly, Allan C. Fisher, Jr., John Scofield, Mason Sutherland Issue Editor: Howell Walker Senior Staff Jules B. Billard, Andrew H. Brown, James Cerruti, Gilbert M. Grosvenor, Nathaniel T. Kenney, Edward J. Linehan, Luis Marden, Samuel W. Matthews, Carolyn Bennett Patterson, Kenneth F. Weaver, Paul A. Zahl (Natural Sciences) Foreign Staff W. Robert Moore (Chief); Thomas J. Abercrombie, Barry C. Bishop, David S. Boyer, Kip Ross, Volkmar Wentzel Editorial Staff Edward Cornish, Rowe Findley, William P. E. Graves, John R. Hoopes, Werner Janney, Jay Johnston, Stuart E. Jones, Robert P. Jordan, Howard La Fay, Bart McDowell, Frank Sartwell, Peter T. White; Joanne M. Hess, Winifred M. Myers, Betty T. Sanborne (Assts.); Dorothy M. Corson (Indexes); Rosalie K. Millerd (Files) EditorialLayout: Howard E. Paine (Chief); Charles C. Uhl Book Service: Merle Severy (Chief); Wayne Barrett, Mary Swain Hoover, Anne Dirkes Kobor, Patricia Coyle Nicholson, Edwards Park, John J. Putman School Service: Ralph Gray (Chief); Liva Baker, Arthur P. Miller, Jr. News Service: Windsor P. Booth (Chief); Lonnelle Aikman, Matt C. McDade, Sabin Robbins, Paul G. Sampson Television Service: Robert C. Doyle (Chief) Phototypography:Robert C. Ellis, Jr. Editorial Research: Margaret G. Bledsoe (Chief); Ann K. Wendt (Asst.), Levenia Loder, Patricia Middlemas, Patricia Rosenborg GeographicResearch: George Crossette (Chief); Newton V. Blakeslee (Asst.), Leon J. Canova, Virginia A. LeVasseur, Jean B. McCon ville, Edward C. Schulz Library: Esther Ann Manion (Librarian); Virginia Carter Hills (Asst.), Katharine P. O'Donnell ILLUSTRATIONS STAFF IllustrationsEditor: Herbert S. Wilburn, Jr. Art Editor: Andrew Poggenpohl Asst. Illus.Editors:Robert L. Breeden, W. E. Garrett, Mary S. Griswold, Thomas R. Smith, Charles Allmon (Incoming Photographs) Director of Photography: Robert E. Gilka. Asst. Director: Joseph Baylor Roberts Photographers:B. Anthony Stewart (Chief); James P. Blair, Dean Conger, John E. Fletcher, Robert B. Goodman, Otis Imboden, Bates Littlehales, Albert Moldvay, Thomas Nebbia, Winfield Parks, Robert F. Sisson. Photo Lab: Edwin L. Wisherd (Chief); Richard H. Stewart (Asst.), Milton A. Ford, Donald McBain, Robert S. Oakes, Carl M. Shrader, Guy W. Starling IllustrationsStaff Lee E. Battaglia, Donald J. Crump, Charlene L. Murphy, Robert S. Patton, Arthur A. Terry, Geraldine Linder (Asst.) . Librarian:Caro Stillwell PictorialResearch:Walter Meayers Edwards (Chief) Artists: Walter A. 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