National Geographic : 1963 Nov
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY WASHINGTON, D. C. < 75TH ANNIVERSARY / 1888-1963 Organized "for the increase and \ R0 A1- ' diffusion of geographic knowledge" The National Geographic Society is chartered in Washington, D. C ., in accordance with the laws of the United States, as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization for increasing and diffusing geographic knowledge and promoting research and exploration. Since 1890 the Society has supported more than 200 explorations and re search projects, adding immeasurably to man's knowledge of earth, sea, and sky. It diffuses this knowledge through its journal, NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC; more than 24 million maps distributed each year; its books, globes, and atlases; 30 School Bulletins a year in color; information services to press, radio, and television; and the publication of technical monographs. Articles and photographs of travel, natural history, and expeditions to far places are desired. For material used, generous remuneration is made. MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, President and Editor MELVIN M. PAYNE, Executive Vice President and Secretary ROBERT V. FLEMING, Vice President and Treasurer FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Vice President and Associate Editor ROBERT E. DOYLE, Vice President and Associate Secretary THOMAS M. BEERS, Vice President and Associate Secretary VERNON H. BREWSTER, WM. T. BELL, HERBERT T. HENDERSON, C. VERNON SANDERS, Associate Secretaries ARTHUR B. HANSON, General Counsel COMMITTEE FOR RESEARCH AND EXPLORATION LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Chairman ALEXANDER WETMORE T. DALE STEWART Vice Chairman Director, Museum of Natural Rear Adm. L. O . COLBERT History HUGH L. DRYDEN Smithsonian Institution A. REMINGTON KELLOGG MATTHEW W. STIRLING Research Associate Research Associate Smithsonian Institution Smithsonian Institution Vice Adm. EMORY S. LAND CONRAD L. WIRTH WILLIAM E. WRATHER and the Senior Officers of the Society BOARD OF TRUSTEES GILBERT GROSVENOR, Chairman of the Board, formerly President, National Geographic Society, and Editor of its magazine (1899-1954) THOMAS W. McKNEW, Vice Chairman of the Board, formerly Executive Vice President and Secretary (1932-1962) ROBERT B. ANDERSON MELVIN M. PAYNE Secretary of the Treasury, 1957-61 Executive Vice President LEONARD CARMICHAEL National Geographic Society Secretary, Smithsonian Institution LAURANCE S. ROCKEFELLER LEO OTIS COLBERT Chairman of the Board, Rockefeller Rear Admiral, U. S. Coast Brothers, Inc., and President and Geodetic Survey, Retired Jackson Hole Preserve HUGH L. DRYDEN UAN T. TRIPPE Deputy Administrator, National resident Pan American Aeronautics & Space Administration World Airways ROBERT V. FLEMING Advisory Chairman of the Board FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH and Chairman, Executive Committee, Assoc. Editor, National Geographic Riggs National Bank JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR. CRAWFORD H. GREENEWALT Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Chairman of the Board, E. I. du Pont Research and Development de Nemours & Company MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR EARL WARREN Editor, National Geographic Chief Justice of the United States EMORY S. LAND ALEXANDER WETMORE Vice Admiral, U. S. Navy, Research Associate Retired, formerly President Smithsonian Institution Air Transport Association LLOYD B. WILSON CURTIS E. LEMAY Honorary Board Chairman, Chesa Chief of Staff, U. S. Air Force peake & Potomac Telephone Co. H. RANDOLPH MADDOX Vice President, American Tele- CONRAD L. WIRTH phone & Telegraph Company (Ret.) Director, National Park Service BENJAMIN M. McKELWAY U. S. Department of the Interior Editorial Chairman, Washington Star WILLIAM E. WRATHER WALTER K. MYERS, M.D . Director, U. S . Geological Physician Survey, Retired Asst. Secretaries: HERMAN J. A . C . ARENS, CHARLES P. BIXEL, OWEN R. ANDERSON, Asst. Secretary and Asst. Treasurer: HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON. Asst. Treasurer: WM. H . McCAULEY HERMAN J. A . C . ARENS, Executive Assistant, LEONARD J. GRANT, Editorial Assistant, and Gail H. Carroll, Secretary to the President and Editor; Sibyl Peck, Assistant to the Chairman of the Board; Lenore W. Kessler, Secretary to the Vice Chairman of the Board COVER: Deer and children enjoy Porcupine Mountains State Park in Michigan, one of the Nation's more than 26,000 local recreation areas (page 669). NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, Editor MELVIN M. PAYNE, Executive Vice President FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Associate Editor FRANC SHOR, Senior Assistant Editor EDITORIAL STAFF Assistant Editors: James Cerruti, Robert L. Conly, Allan C. Fisher, Jr., John Scofield, Mason Sutherland Senior Staff: Jules B. Billard, Andrew H. Brown, Gilbert M. Grosvenor, Nathaniel T. Kenney, Edward J. Linehan, Luis Marden, Samuel W. Matthews, Carolyn Bennett Patterson, Howell Walker, Kenneth F. Weaver, Paul A. Zahl (Natural Sciences) Foreign Staff: W. Robert Moore (Chief); Thomas J. Abercrombie, Barry C. Bishop, David S. Boyer, Kip Ross, Volkmar Wentzel Issue Editor: Rowe Findley Editorial Staff Edward Cornish, William P. E. Graves, John R. Hoopes, Werner Janney, Jay Johnston, Stuart E. Jones, Robert P. Jordan, Howard La Fay, Bart McDowell, Frank Sartwell, Peter T. White; Joanne M. Hess, Winifred M. Myers, Betty T. Sanborne (Assts.); Dorothy M. Corson (Indexes); RosalieK. Millerd (Files); Arnvid Nygaard (Chief Translator); Mary Webster Parkhurst EditorialLayout: Howard E. Paine (Chief); Charles C. Uhl Book Service: Merle Severy (Chief); Wayne Barrett, Ross Bennett, Seymour L. Fishbein, Mary Swain Hoover, Anne Dirkes Kobor, Patricia Coyle Nicholson, Edwards Park, John J. Putman School Service: Ralph Gray (Chief); Arthur P. Miller, Jr., Lea Ridgley, Charles H. Sloan News Service: Windsor P. Booth (Chief); Lonnelle Aikman, Matt C. McDade, Sabin Robbins, Jr., Paul G. Sampson; Isabel Clarke (Asst.) Television Service: Robert C. Doyle (Chief) Phototypography: Robert C. Ellis, Jr. Editorial Research: Margaret G. Bledsoe (Chief); Ann K. Wendt (Asst. Chief), Mary Ann Harrell, Levenia Loder, Patricia Middle mas, Patricia Rosenborg GeographicResearch: George Crossette (Chief); Newton V. Blakeslee (Asst. Chief), Leon J. Canova, Virginia A. LeVasseur, Jean B. McConville, Edward C. Schulz Library: Esther Ann Manion (Librarian); Virginia Carter Hills (Asst. Librarian), Vera Cassilly, Katharine P. O'Donnell ILLUSTRATIONS STAFF IllustrationsEditor: Herbert S. Wilburn, Jr. Art Editor: Andrew Poggenpohl Asst. Illust. Editors: Robert L. Breeden, W. E. Garrett, Mary S. Gris wold, Thomas R. Smith, Charles Allmon (Incoming Photographs) Director of Photography: Robert E. Gilka. Asst. Director: Joseph Baylor Roberts Photographers:B. Anthony Stewart (Chief); James P. Blair, Dean Conger, John E. Fletcher, Otis Imboden, Bates Littlehales, Al bert Moldvay, Thomas Nebbia, Winfield Parks, Robert F. Sisson Photo Lab: Edwin L. Wisherd (Chief); Richard H. Stewart (Asst. Chief), Milton A. Ford, Donald McBain, Robert S. Oakes, CarlM. Shrader, Guy W. Starling IllustrationsStaff. Lee E. Battaglia, Donald J. Crump, Charlene L. Murphy, Robert S. Patton, Arthur A. Terry; Geraldine Linder (Asst.). Librarian:Caro Stillwell PictorialResearch: Walter Meayers Edwards (Chief) Artists: Walter A. Weber (Naturalist), Peter V. Bianchi Engraving& Printing: Dee J. Andella (Chief); Joe M. Barlett, Frank S. Oliverio, William W. Smith CARTOGRAPHIC STAFF Chief Cartographer:James M. Darley Asst. Chief Cartographers:Newman Bumstead, Ralph E. McAleer CartographicEngineer: Wellman Chamberlin. Base Maps: Charles L. Stern (Supervisor); Harry C. Siddeley. Physiography: John J. Brehm, Robert W. Northrop. Oceanography: Apphia E. Holdstock, David W. Cook. Transportation: Douglas A. Strobel (Supervisor). Map Drawings: William T. Peele (Supervisor). Geographic Names: Richard J. Darley (Supervisor); Russel G. Fritz, Donald A. Jaeger, George E. Stuart. Map Editing: Athos D. Grazzini (Supervisor); Carol J. Cunningham, Ted Dachtera, Richard K. Rogers. Admin istrative Assistant: Catherine M. Hart Geographic Art: Newman Bumstead (Chief). Artists: Irvin E. Alleman, Joseph E. Barrett, Gilbert H. Emerson, Victor J. Kelley, John W. Lothers, Robert C. Magis, Robert W. Nicholson, William Palmstrom. Research: George W. Beatty, Eugene M. Scheel SECRETARY'S STAFF Administrative: Edwin W. Snider, Raymond T. McElligott, Jr., Richard E. Pearson. Accounting: F. Charles Brown, George F. Fogle, Martha K. Allen. Cashier: Frank S. Delk. Statistics: Everett C. Brown. Procurement:J. P. M. Johnston. Payroll: Esther M. Lohrer, Marie S. Edwards. Membership Fulfillment: Roy J. Klockenbrink. Promotion: Stan Jennings, E. M. Pusey, Jr., Gordon Young. Accounts Records: Della M. Hurt. Personnel: J. B . Mahon, Mary Louise Cross, Frank A. Holman. Medical: Thomas L. Hartman, M.D. EUROPEAN OFFICE W. E . Roscher (Director) 161-166 Fleet Street, London E.C. 4, England ADVERTISING Director:John F. Connery, New York Advertising Manager: Harley L. McDevitt, New York Chicago: William Turgeon. San Francisco: Donald F. Mikkelsen Los Angeles: Jack V. Sheehan Automotive Manager: William A. Boeger, Jr., New York Copyright © 1963 National Geographic Society. 16th and M Streets N.W .. Washington D. C .. 20036. All rights reserved. Reproduction or use of the whole or any part of the contents without written permission is prohibited. Printed in U.S .A. Second class postage paid at Washington, D. C. . and at additional mailing offices. Cover design and title protected by international trademark.