National Geographic : 1966 Jan
National Geographic, January, 1966 real wages of factory workers 20 percent, and average family income 15 percent. Above all, President Eisenhower concen trated on keeping the peace in a world threat ened with thermonuclear destruction. His Atoms for Peace program, announced in 1953, offered the United Nations loans of American uranium for peaceful use by "have not" countries. Throughout his eight years in office, he tried to reach an accord with the Soviet Union to end atomic tests and limit nuclear armaments. Rift Widens Despite Khrushchev Visit In the fall of 195 7 the hopes raised at the Geneva summit conference vanished. The Soviet Union, on October 4, launched the first earth satellite, giving rise to fears that it might now deliver thermonuclear warheads any where in the world. The President responded to "sputnik diplo macy" by increasing American armaments and foreign aid, speeding an American satel lite program, and then renewing his efforts to negotiate with the Soviet Union. He even invited Premier Khrushchev to visit the United States, but, though the Pre mier came, new crises drove the two nations further apart: the shooting down of an Amer ican U-2 reconnaissance plane over the Soviet Union, and the breaking of diplomatic rela tions with Communist Cuba. The Soviets still refused to agree to a secure atomic test-ban treaty, and the best that could be achieved was a temporary abstinence from testing. To maintain security as well as to assist suffering peoples, Eisenhower year after year requested large appropriations for the foreign aid program. He himself in his final months of office visited many nations around the globe (page 95). To cheering multitudes wher ever he went, he repeatedly proclaimed the American desire for peace. Before he left office in January, 1961, for his Gettysburg farm, he urged the necessity of maintaining military strength, but cautioned that vast, long-continued military expendi tures could breed potential dangers to our way of life. The retiring President pointed out that the "conjunction of an immense military estab lishment and a large arms industry is new in the American experience.... We must never let the weight of this combination endanger our liberties or democratic processes. We should take nothing for granted." He concluded with a prayer that "in the goodness of time, all peoples will come to live together in a peace guaranteed by the bind ing force of mutual respect and love." Distinguished world traveler, Brit ain's Prince Philip receives the Na tional Geographic Society's Special Gold Medal from President Eisen hower in 1958. Earlier, Society Presi dent Melville Bell Grosvenor, stand ing behind the Chief Executive, read the inscription: "To His Royal High ness, the Prince Philip, Duke of Edin burgh, whose questing spirit has taken him to the far corners of the globe and brought to millions a better under standing of our planet and its peo ples." Dr. Gilbert H. Grosvenor, Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, and the late Dr. John Oliver La Gorce of the Society's Board of Trustees watch the presentation at the White House. Four years before, Eisenhower had become the eighth President to present medals on behalf of the Society when he awarded the Hubbard Medal to Sir Edmund Hillary, Sir John Hunt, and Tenzing Norkey of the British Mount Everest Expedition for the first con quest of earth's highest mountain.