National Geographic : 1966 Jan
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY WASHINGTON. D. C. Organized "for the increase and diffusion of geographic knowledge" The National Geographic Society is chartered in Washington, D. C., in accordance with the laws of the United States, as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization for increasing and diffusing geographic knowledge and promoting research and exploration. Since 1890 the Society has supported more than 285 explorations and re search projects, adding immeasurably to man's knowledge of earth, sea, and sky. It diffuses this knowledge through its monthly journal, NATIONAL GEO GRAPHIC; more than 28 million maps distributed each year: its books, globes, and atlases; 30 School Bulletins a year in color; information services to press, radio, and television; technical monographs; and now a nationwide series of programs on television. Articles and photographs of travel, natural history, and expeditions to far places are desired. For material used, generous remuneration is made. MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, President and Editor MELVIN M. PAYNE, Executive Vice President and Secretary ROBERT V. FLEMING, Vice President and Treasurer FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH. Vice President and Associate Editor LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Vice President for Research and Exploration ROBERT E. DOYLE, Vice President and Associate Secretary THOMAS M. BEERS, Vice President and Associate Secretary VERNON H. BREWSTER, HERMAN J. A. C. ARENS, WM. T. BELL, HERBERT T. HENDERSON,C.VIERNONSANDERS, AssociateSecretaries ARTHUR B. HANSON, General Counsel COMMITTEE FOR RESEARCH AND EXPLORATION LEONARD C ALEXANDER WETMORE Vice Chairman MELVIN M. PAYNE Vice Chairman Rear Adm. L. O . COLBERT IHUGH L. DRYDEN CARYL P. HASKINS A. REMINGTON KELLOGG Research Associate Smithsonian Institution Vice Adm. EMORY S. LAND ARMICHAEL, Chairman T. DALE STEWART Director, Museum of Natural History Smithsonian Institution MATTHEW W. STIRLING Research Associate Smithsonian Institution JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR. CONRAD L. WIRTH PAUL A. ZAHL and the Senior Officers of the Society BARRY C. BISHOP, Secretary BOARD OF TRUSTEES GILBERT GROSVENOR, Chairman of the Board, formerly President, National Geographic Society, and Editor of its magazine (1899-1954) THOMAS W. McKNEW, Vice Chairman of the Board, formerly Executive Vice President and Secretary (1932-1962) LEONARD CARMICHAEL BENJAMIN M. McKELWAY Vice President EditorialChairman,WashingtonStar National Geographic Society MELVIN M. PAYNE LEO OTIS COLBERT Executive Vice President Rear Admiral, U. S. Coast National Geographic Society and Geodetic Survey, Retired LAURANCE S. ROCKEFELLER HUGH L. DRYDEN Chairman of the Board, Rockefeller Deputy Administrator, National Brothers, Inc., and President Aeronautics & Space Administration Jackson Hole Preserve ROBERT V. FLEMING JUAN T. TRIPPE Advisory Chairman of the Board Chairman of the Board and Chairman, Executive Committee, Pan American World Airways Riggs National Bank FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH CRAWFORD H. GREENEWALT Assoc. Editor, National Geographic Chairman of the Board, E. I . duPont JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR. de Nemours & Company For m er Assistant Secretary of the MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Navy for Research and Editor, National Geographic Development CARYL P. HASKINS EARL WARREN President, Carnegie Chief Justice of the United States Institution of Washington ALEXANDER WETMORE EMORY S. LAND Research Associate Vice Admiral, U. S. Navy, Smithsonian Institution Retired, formerly President LLOYD B. WILSON Air Transport Association Honorary Board Chairman, Chesa CURTIS E. LFMAY peake & Potomac Telephone Co. Former Chief of Staff, U. S . Air Force CONRAD L. WIRTH H. RANDOLPH MADDOX Former Director Vice President, American Tele- National Park Service phone & Telegraph Company (Ret.) U. S. Department of the Interior WM. McCHESNEY MARTIN, JR. LOUIS B. WRIGHT Chairman, Board of Governors Director, Folger Shakespeare Federal Reserve System Library Asst. Secretaries: OWEN R. ANDERSON, CHARLES P. BIXEL; Asst. Secretary and Asst. Treasurer: HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON; Asst. Treasurer: WM. H. McCAULEY HERMAN J. A . C . ARENS. Executive Assistant, LEONARD J. GRANT. Editorial Assistant, and Judith N. Dixon, Secretary to the President and Editor; Sibyl Peck, Assistant to the Chairman of the Board; Lenore W. Kessler, Secretary to the Vice Chairman of the Board COVER: lountedl Bedouin swings a graceful scimitar at a royal horse slhow in Saudi Arabia (page 1). NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, Editor MELVIN M. PAYNE, Executive Vice President FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Associate Editor FRANC SHOR, Associate Editor JAMES M. DARLEY, CartographerEmeritus EDITORIAL STAFF Assistant Editors: Newman Bumstead, James Cerruti, Robert L. Conly, Allan C. Fisher, Jr., Gilbert M. Grosvenor, Kenneth MacLeish, Carolyn Bennett Patterson, John Scofield, Howell Walker Senior Staff: Lonnelle Aikman, Jules B. Billard, Andrew H. Brown, Wil liam Graves, Stuart E. Jones, Robert P. Jordan, Nathaniel T. Kenney, Howard La Fay, Edward J. Linehan, Luis Marden, Samuel W. Mat thews, Bart McDowell, Kenneth F.Weaver, Paul A. Zahl (Natural Sciences) Foreign Staff' W. Robert Moore (Chief); Thomas J. Abercrombie, David S. Boyer, Helen and Frank Schreider, Volkmar Wentzel; Kip Ross (Research) Issue Editor: Rowe Findley Editorial Staff: Wayne Barrett, Thomas Y. Canby, Louis de la Haba, Joanne M. Hess, Werner Janney, Jay Johnston, Elizabeth A. Moize, Frank Sartwell, O. Mac White; Winifred M. Myers, Betty T. San borne (Assts.); Dorothy M. Corson (Indexes); Rosalie K. Millerd (Files); Arnvid Nygaard (Chief Translator); Mary Webster McKinney EditorialLayout.: Howard E. Paine (Chief); Charles C. Uhl Book Service: Merle Severy (Chief); Edwards Park (Assoc. Chief); Seymour L. Fishbein (Asst. Chief), Ross Bennett, Anne Dirkes Kobor, Patricia Coyle Nicholson, John J. Putman Geographic Art: Newman Bumstead (Chief); William Palmstrom (Asst. Chief). Artists: Irvin E. Alleman, Joseph E. Barrett, Lisa Biganzoli, Gil bert H. Emerson, Victor J. Kelley, John W. Lothers, Robert C. Magis, Robert W. Nicholson, Isaac Ortiz. Research: George W. Beatty, Walter Q. Crowe, Dorothy A. Nicholson, Eugene M. Scheel EditorialResearch: Margaret G. Bledsoe (Chief); Ann K. Wendt (Asst. Chief), Margery G. Dunn, Mary Ann Harrell, Jan Holderness, Levenia Loder, Patricia Rosenborg Geographic Research: George Crossette (Chief); Newton V. Blakeslee (Asst. Chief), Leon J. Canova, Margaret Ladd, Virginia A. LeVasseur, Jean B. McConville School Service: Ralph Gray (Chief); Lea Ridgley Fuller, Arthur P. Miller, Jr., Charles H. Sloan, Janis Knudsen Wheat News Service: Windsor P. Booth (Chief), Matt C. McDade (Asst. Chief); Edward Cornish, Sabin Robbins, Paul G. Sampson; Isabel Clarke (Asst.) Television Service: Robert C. Doyle (Chief); Guy Blanchard, David Cooper Phototypography. Robert C. Ellis, Jr. (Chief); John McConnell (Asst. Chief), Elizabeth L. Donley Library: Esther Ann Manion (Librarian Emeritus); Virginia Carter Hills (Librarian): Margery K. Barkdull (Asst. Librarian), Vera Cassilly, Katharine P. O'Donnell EditorialAdministration: Patricia M. Watkins ILLUSTRATIONS STAFF IllustrationsEditor: Herbert S. Wilburn, Jr. Art Editor: Andrew Poggenpohl Asst. Illust. Editors:Robert L. Breeden, W. E. Garrett; Mary S. Griswold, Thomas R. Smith, Charles Allmon (Incoming Photographs) Director of Photography: Robert E. Gilka. Asst. Director: Joseph Baylor Roberts. Chief of Film Review: Richard H. Stewart Photographers:B. Anthony Stewart (Chief); James P. Blair, Dean Con ger, Bruce Dale, John E. Fletcher, Otis Imboden, Bates Littlehales, George F. Mobley, Albert Moldvay, Thomas Nebbia, Winfield Parks, Joseph J. Scherschel, Robert F. Sisson PictureEditors: Lee E. Battaglia, Donald J. Crump, O. Louis Mazzatenta, Charlene L. Murphy, Robert S. Patton, Arthur A. Terry; Geraldine Linder (Asst.). Librarian: Alan J. Lessel Photo Lab: Edwin L. Wisherd (Chief); Milton A. Ford, Donald McBain, Robert S. Oakes, Claude E. Petrone, Carl M. Shrader, Guy W. Starling PictorialResearch: Walter Meayers Edwards (Chief) Artists: Walter A. Weber (Naturalist), Peter V. Bianchi Engraving & Printing: Dee J. Andella (Chief); Joe M. Barlett, Frank S. Oliverio, William W. Smith CARTOGRAPHIC STAFF Chief Cartographer:Wellman Chamberlin Associate Chief Cartographer:Athos D. Grazzini Asst. Chief. William T. Peele. Base Maps and Revisions: Charles L. Stern (Supervisor); David W. Cook, John F. Dorr, Harry C. Siddeley. Map Drawings:Douglas A. Strobel (Supervisor); John J. Brehm, Robert W. Northrop, Thomas A. Wall. Geographic Names: Richard J. Darley (Super visor); Carol Cunningham Foley, Donald A. Jaeger, Manuela G. Kogutowicz, George E. Stuart. Oceanography: Apphia E. Holdstock. Map Editing: Ted Dachtera (Supervisor); Russel G. Fritz, Richard K. Rogers. Administrative Assistant: Catherine M. Hart SECRETARY'S STAFF Administrative: Edwin W. Snider, Raymond T. McElligott, Jr., Richard E. Pearson. Accounting: Jay Givans, George F. Fogle, Martha Allen Baggett. Cashier: Frank S. Delk. Statistics: Everett C. Brown, Thomas M. Kent. Procurement: J. P. M. Johnston, Robert G. Corey. Payrolland Retirement: Joseph B. Hogan. Membership Research: Charles T. Knee land. Membership Fulfillment: Roy J. Klockenbrink. Promotion: Stan Jennings, E. M. Pusey, Jr., Gordon Young, Phyllis Greene. Personnel: James B. Mahon, Frank A. Holman, Adrian L. Loftin, Jr. Medical: Thomas L. Hartman, M.D. Explorers Hall: T. Keilor Bentley, Curator Director EUROPEAN OFFICE W. E. Roscher (Director) 11 Stanhope Gate, Mayfair, London, W. 1, England ADVERTISING Director: Harley L. McDevitt, New York Managers-Eastern:William A. Boeger, Jr.; Asst. Eastern: John R. Weist, New York. Midwestern: William Turgeon. Los Angeles: Jack V. Sheehan. San Francisco:Thomas Martz. Automotive: Joseph T. Feeney, New York. Travel: Robert W. Horan, New York Copyright © 1965 National Geographic Society. 17th and M Streets N.W., Washington, D. C. 2003. All rights resrved. itelrodletion oriit of the ,hol or any part of the contents with olt writtn permi siona , irohibited.iPrinted i U.S.A. Second class postage paid at Washinga thn, l). C . and;t additional mailing ofli(es. Cover design and title protect i iyntern:l til ,n:,l radenark.