National Geographic : 1967 Jan
FIFTH most populous nation on earth, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan won inde pendence in 1947 as a dominion within the British Commonwealth. A refuge and home for the Moslems of the Indian subcontinent, Pakistan is mountain-hemmed and dry in the west, flat and soaked by monsoon rains in the east. AREA: 310,403 sq. mi. in the western province, 55,126 in more populous east ern province. POP ULATION: Officially 100,000,000; latest estimates reach 116,000,000. LANGUAGES: Officially Urdu in the west, Ben gali in the east, and English in both provinces until 1972. RELIGIONS: Overwhelmingly Mos lem, with some Hindus, Buddhists, Christians, animists, and Parsis. ECONOMY: Predominantly agricultural, growing wheat, rice, sugar cane, and cotton; world's largest exporter of raw jute. Main manufactured products: Burlap and cotton tex tiles, paper. MAJOR CITIES: Karachi (2,000,000), port and commercial center; Lahore (1,500,000), cultural center and west-wing capital; Dacca (600,000), east-wing capital; Rawalpindi (375,000), interim national capital; Islamabad, new national capital, still under construction.