National Geographic : 1967 Nov
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY WASHINGTON, D. C. Organized "for the increaseand diffusion of geographicknowledge" / 7 GILBERT HOVEY GROSVENOR t ^a President, 1920-1954;Editor, 1899-1954 Chairman of the Board, 1954-1966 THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY is chartered in Washington, D. C., in accordance with the laws of the United States, as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization for increasing and diffusing geographic knowledge and promoting research and exploration. Since 1890 the Society has sup ported 393 explorations and research projects, adding immeasurably to man's knowledge of earth, sea, and sky. It diffuses this knowledge through its monthly journal, NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC; more than 26 million maps distributed each year; its books, globes, and atlases; 30 School Bulletins a year in color; information services to press, radio, and television; technical monographs; timely exhibits from around the world in Explorers Hall; and a nationwide series of programs on television. Articles and photographs of travel, natural history, and expeditions to far places are desired. For material used, generous remuneration is made. MELVIN M. PAYNE, President FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Vice President and Editor ROBERT V. FLEMING, Vice President and Treasurer LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Vice President for Research and Exploration ROBERT E. DOYLE, Vice President and Secretary THOMAS M. BEERS, Vice President and Associate Secretary GILBERT M. GROSVENOR, Vice President and Associate Editor OWEN R. ANDERSON, HERMAN J. A . C . ARENS, WILLIAM T. BELL, HERBERT T. HENDERSON, W. EDWARD ROSCHER, C. VERNON SANDERS, Associate Secretaries HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON, Deputy Treasurer and Assistant Secretary BOARD OF TRUSTEES MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Chairman of the Board and Editor-in-Chief THOMAS W. McKNEW, Advisory Chairman of the Board LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Former Secretary, Smithsonian Institution LEO OTIS COLBERT, Rear Admiral, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey (Ret.) ROBERT V. FLEMING Advisory Chairman of the Board and Chairman, Executive Committee, Riggs National Bank CRAWFORD H. GREENEWALT Chairman of the Board, E. I . du Pont de Nemours & Company GILBERT M. GROSVENOR Associate Editor, National Geographic ARTHUR B. HANSON, General Counsel, National Geographic Society CARYL P. HASKINS, President, Carnegie Institution of Washington EMORY S. LAND, Vice Admiral, U. S . Navy (Ret.), Former President, Air Transport Association CURTIS E. LEMAY, Former Chief of Staff, U. S. Air Force H. RANDOLPH MADDOX Vice President, American Telephone & Telegraph Company (Ret.) WM. McCHESNEY MARTIN, JR. Chairman, Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System BENJAMIN M. McKELWAY Editorial Chairman, Washington Star MELVIN M. PAYNE, President, National Geographic Society LAURANCE S. ROCKEFELLER President, Rockefeller Brothers Fund JUAN T. TRIPPE, Chairman of the Board, Pan American World Airways FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH Editor, National Geographic JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR., Former Assistant Secretary of the Navy EARL WARREN Chief Justice of the United States JAMES E. WEBB Administrator, National Aeronautics and Space Administration ALEXANDER WETMORE Research Associate, Smithsonian Institution LLOYD B. WILSON (Emeritus) Honorary Board Chairman, Chesapeake & Potomac Telephone Company CONRAD L. WIRTH, Former Director, National Park Service LOUIS B. WRIGHT, Director, Folger Shakespeare Library COMMITTEE FOR RESEARCH AND EXPLORATION LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Chairman ALEXANDER WETMORE and MELVIN M. PAYNE, Vice Chairmen LEO OTIS COLBERT, CARYL P. HASKINS, A. REMINGTON KELLOGG, Research Associate, Smithsonian Institution, EMORY S. LAND, T. DALE STEWART, Senior Scientist, Office of Anthropology, Smithsonian Institution, MATTHEW W. STIRLING, Research Asso ciate, Smithsonian Institution, JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR., CONRAD L. WIRTH, PAUL A. ZAHL, and the senior officers of the Society; BARRY C. BISHOP, Secretary (on leave); EDWIN W. SNIDER, Acting Secretary Assistant Secretaries: CHARLES P. BIXEL, FRANK S. DELK, JOSEPH B. HOGAN, RAYMOND T. McELLIGOTT, JR. Assistant Treasurer: WILLIAM H. McCAULEY Leonard J. Grant, Editorial Assistant to the President; Edwin W. Snider, Richard E. Pearson, Administrative Assistants to the President; Judith N. Dixon, Administrative Assistant to the Chairman and Editor-in-Chief; Lenore W. Kessler, Secretary to the Advisory Chairman of the Board SECRETARY'S STAFF Administrative: Earl Corliss, Jr., Ward S. Phelps. Accounting: Jay H. Givans, George F. Fogle, Alfred J. Hayre, Wil liam G. McGhee, Martha Allen Baggett. Statistics: Everett C. Brown, Thomas M. Kent. Procurement:J. P. M . Johnston, Robert G. Corey, Sheila H. Immel, Margaret A. Shearer. Membership Research: Charles T. Kneeland. Membership Fulfillment. Roy J. Klockenbrink. Member Relations: Paul F. Moize. Computer Center: John Goedel. Secretary's Files: Mozelle L. Downs. Promotion: Stan Jennings, E. M. Pusey, Jr., Gordon Young, Phyllis Greene, Robert J. Warfel. Personnel:James B. Mahon, Adrian L. Loftin, Jr., Nellie E. Sinclair. Medical: Thomas L. Hartman, M. D. Explorers Hall: T. Keilor Bentley (Curator-Director) 4 COVER: Racing before a gritty wind, land yachts careen across trackless wastes of the Sahara (page 711). NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Editor-in-Chief and Board Chairman MELVIN M. PAYNE President of the Society FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Editor GILBERT M. GROSVENOR, FRANC SHOR, Associate Editors Senior Assistant Editors: Allan C. Fisher, Jr., John Scofield Assistant Editors: Andrew H. Brown, James Cerruti, Robert L. Conly, W. E. Garrett, Edward J. Linehan, Kenneth MacLeish (Foreign Staff), Carolyn Bennett Patterson, Howell Walker, Kenneth F. Weaver Senior Editorial Staff: Lonnelle Aikman, Jules B. Billard, William Graves, Stuart E. Jones, Robert P. Jordan, Joseph Judge, Nathaniel T. Kenney, Howard La Fay Samuel W. Matthews, Bart McDowell; Senior Natural Scientist: Paul A. Zahl Foreign Editorial Staff: Luis Marden (Chief); W. Robert Moore (Emeritus), Thomas J. Abercrombie, David S. Boyer, Helen and Frank Schreider, Volkmar Wentzel EditorialStaff: Wayne Barrett, Thomas Y. Canby Louis de la Haba, Rowe Findley, Werner Janney, Jay Johnston, Elizabeth A. Moize, Ethel A. Starbird, O. Mac White, Peter T. White EditorialLayout:HowardE. Paine (Chief); Charles C. Uhl,John M. Lavery Geographic Art: William Palmstrom (Chief). Production: Gilbert H. Emerson. Artists: Lisa Biganzoli, Victor J. Kelley, John W. Lothers, Robert C. Magis, Robert W. Nicholson, Isaac Ortiz. Research: George W. Beatty, Walter Q. Crowe, John D. Garst, Jean B. McConville, Dorothy A. Nicholson, Eugene M. Scheel, John P. Wood. Adminis trative Assistant: Marie L. Barnes Editorial Research: Margaret G. Bledsoe (Chief); Ann K. Wendt (Assistant Chief), Edith C. Berg, Elisabeth J. Chappell Ledlie L. Dinsmore, Margery G. 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