National Geographic : 1968 May
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC ' SOCIETY ' , WASHINGTON, D. C .: :'' :.: :, Organized "for the increase and diffusion of geographic knowledge" \. ' GILBERT HOVEY GROSVENOR -Ri . President, 1920-1954; Editor, 1899-1954 Chairman of the Board, 1954-1966 T HE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY is chartered in Washington, D. C.. in accordance with the laws of the United States, as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization for increasing and diffusing geographic knowledge and promoting research and exploration. Since 1890 the Society has supported 436 explorations and research projects, adding immeasurably to man's knowledge of earth, sea, and sky. It diffuses this knowledge through its monthly journal, NA TIONAL GEOGRAPHIC; more than 26 million maps distributed each year; its books, globes, and atlases; 30 School Bulletins a year in color; information services to press, radio, and television; technical monographs; timely exhibits from around the world in Explorers Hall; and a nationwide series of programs on television. Articles and photographs of travel, natural history, and expeditions to far places are desired. For material used, generous remuneration is made. MELVIN M. PAYNE, President FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Vice President and Editor LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Vice President for Research and Exploration ROBERT E. DOYLE, Vice President and Secretary THOMAS M. BEERS, Vice President and Associate Secretary GILBERT M. GROSVENOR, Vice President and Associate Editor OWEN R. ANDERSON, HERMAN J. A . C . ARENS, WILLIAM T. BELL, HERBERT T. HENDERSON, W. EDWARD ROSCHER, C. VERNON SANDERS, Associate Secretaries HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON, Deputy Treasurer and Assistant Secretary BOARD OF TRUSTEES MELVII.LE BELL GROSVENOR Chairman of the Board and Editor-in-Chief THOMAS W. McKNEW, Advisory Chairman of the Board I.EONARD CARMICHAEL. Former Secretary, Smithsonian Institution LEO OTIS COLBERT, Rear Admiral. U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey (Ret.) CRAWFORD H. GREENEWAL.T Chairman, Finance Committee. E. 1. du Pont de Nemours & Company GILBERT M. GROSVENOR Associate Editor, National Geographic ARTHUR B. HANSON, General Counsel, National Geographic Society CARYL P. HASKINS, President, Carnegie Institution of Washington EMORY S. LAND, Vice Admiral, U. S. Navy (Ret.), Former President, Air Transport Association CURTIS E. LEMAY . Former Chief of Staff, U. S. Air Force H. RANDOLPH MADDOX Vice President. American Telephone & Telegraph Company (Ret.) WM. McCHESNEY MARTIN, JR. Chairman, Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System BENJAMIN M. McKELWAY Editorial Chairman, Washington Star MELVIN M. PAYNE, President, National Geographic Society LAURANCE S. ROCKEFELLER President. Rockefeller Brothers Fund JUAN T. TRIPPE. Chairman of the Board, Pan American World Airways FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH Editor, National Geographic JAMES H. WAKELIN. JR., Former Assistant Secretary of the Navy EARL WARREN Chief Justice of the United States JAMES E. WEBB Administrator, National Aeronautics and Space Administration ALEXANDER WETMORE Research Associate, Smithsonian Institution LLOYD B. WILSON (Emeritus) Honorary Board Chairman, Chesapeake & Potomac Telephone Company CONRAD L. WIRTH, Former Director, National Park Service LOUIS B. WRIGHT. Director, Folger Shakespeare Library COMMITTEE FOR RESEARCH AND EXPLORATION LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Chairman ALEXANDER WETMORE and MELVIN M. PAYNE, Vice Chairmen LEO OTIS COLBERT. CARYL P. HASKINS, A. REMINGTON KEL LOGG, Research Associate, Smithsonian Institution, EMORY S. LAND, T. DALE STEWART, Senior Scientist, Office of Anthropology, Smithsonian Insti tution, MATTHEW W. STIRLING, Research Associate, Smithsonian Institu tion, JAMES H. WAKELIN.JR., CONRAD L. WIRTH, PAUL A. ZAHL, and the senior officers of the Society; BARRY C. BISHOP, Secretary (on leave); EDWIN W. SNIDER, Acting Secretary Assistant Secretaries: CHARLES P. BIXEL, FRANK S. DELK, JOSEPH B. HOGAN, RAYMOND T. McELLIGOTT. JR. Assistant Treasurer: WILLIAM H. McCAULEY Leonard J. Grant, Editorial Assistant to the President; Edwin W. Snider, Richard E. Pearson, Administrative Assistants to the President; Judith N. Dixon, Ad ministrative Assistant to the Chairman and Editor-in-Chief; 1 enore W. Kessler, Secretary to the Advisory Chairman of the Board SECRETARY'S STAFF:Administrative: Earl Corliss, Jr., Ward S. Phelps. Account ing: Jay H. Givans, George F. Fogle. Alfred J. Hayre, William G. McGhee, Martha Allen Baggett. Statistics: Everett C. Brown, Thomas M. Kent. Retire ment: Mary L. Whitmore (Assistant Supervisor). Payroll: Dorothy L. Dameron (Assistant Supervisor). Procurement: J. P. M . Johnston, Robert G. Corey, Robert C. Ellis, Jr.. Sheila H. Immel, Margaret A. Shearer. Membership Research: Charles T. Kneeland. Membership Fulfillment: Roy J. Klockenbrink. Member Relations: Paul F. Moize. Computer Center: John Goedel. Secretary's Files: Mozelle L. Downs. Promotion: Stan Jennings, E. M. Pusey, Jr., Gordon Young, Robert J. Warfel. Personnel: James B. Mahon, Adrian L. Loftin, Jr., Nellie E. Sinclair. Medical: Thomas L. Hartman, M. D. Translation:Zbigniew Jan Lutyk 4 COVER: Diadem of peaks in Washington's North Cas cades frames a turquoise jewel-4,165-foot-high Trapper Lake (page 642). KODACHROME BY BOB ANDIRA SPRING© N.G.S. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Editor-in-Chief and Board Chairman MELVIN M. PAYNE President of the Society FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH,Editor GILBERT M. GROSVENOR, FRANC SHOR, Associate Editors Senior Assistant Editors: Allan C. Fisher, Jr., John Scofield Assistant Editors: Andrew H. Brown, James Cerruti, Robert L. Conly, W. E . Garrett, Edward J. Linehan, Kenneth MacLeish (Foreign Staff), Carolyn Bennett Patterson, Howell Walker, Kenneth F. Weaver Senior Editorial Staff: Lonnelle Aikman, Jules B. Billard, Rowe Findley, Wil liam Graves, Stuart E. Jones, Robert P. Jordan, Joseph Judge, Nathaniel T. Kenney. Howard La Fay, Samuel W. Matthews, Bart McDowell; Senior Natural Scientist: Paul A. Zahl Foreign Editorial Staff: Luis Marden (Chief); Thomas J. Abercrombie, David S. Boyer, Helen and Frank Schreider, Volkmar Wentzel Editorial Staff: Wayne Barrett, Thomas Y. Canby, Louis de la Haba, Alice J. Hall, Werner Janney, Jay Johnston, Elizabeth A. Moize, Ethel A. Starbird, Peter T. White Editorial Layout: Howard E. Paine (Chief); Charles C. Uhl, John M. Lavery Geographic Art: William N. Palmstrom (Chief); Gilbert H. Emerson (Asst. Chief). Artists: Lisa Biganzoli, William H. Bond, John W. Lothers, Robert C. Magis, Robert W. Nicholson, Ned M. Seidler. CartographicArtists: Victor J. Kelley, Snejinka Stefanoff. Research: Walter Q. Crowe (Supervisor), George W. Beatty, John D. Garst, Jean B. McConville, Dorothy A. Nichol son, Eugene M. Scheel, John P. Wood. Isaac Ortiz (Production). Marie L. Barnes (Administrative Assistant) Editorial Research: Margaret G. Bledsoe (Chief); Ann K. Wendt (Assistant Chief), Edith C. Berg, Elisabeth J. Chappell, Ledlie L. Dinsmore, Margery G. Dunn, Jan Holderness, Levenia Loder, Frances H. Parker, Patricia Ros enborg, Elizabeth C. Wagner Geographic Research: George Crossette (Chief); Newton V. Blakeslee (Assist ant Chief), Leon J. Canova, Margaret Ladd, Virginia A. LeVasseur, John A. Weeks Phototypography:John McConnell (Chief) Library: Virginia Carter Hills (Librarian); Margery K. Barkdull (Assistant Librarian), Melba Barnes, Vera Cassilly, Katharine P. O'Donnell, Louise A. Robinson, Esther Ann Manion (Librarian Emeritus) Administration: Betty T. Sanborne, Administrative Assistant to the Editor; Harriet Carey, Virginia H. Finnegan, Winifred M. Myers, Shirley Neff(Edi torial Assistants); Dorothy M. Corson (Indexes); Rosalie K. Millerd, Jeanne S. Duiker (Files); Evelyn Fox (Transportation) ILLUSTRATIONS STAFF:Illustrations Editor: Herbert S. Wilburn, Jr. Associate Illustrations Editor: Thomas R. Smith. Art Editor: Andrew Poggenpohl. Assistant Illustrations Editors: Mary S. Griswold, O. Louis Mazzatenta, Charles Allmon (Incoming Photographs). Layout andProduction:Arthur A. Terry. Senior Picture Editors: Charlene Murphy, Robert S. Patton. Picture Editors: Manuel L. Lopez, Jon Schneeberger. Librarian: Alan J. Lessel. Barbara A. Shattuck (Assistant) Artists: Walter A. Weber (Naturalist), Peter V. Bianchi Engraving and Printing: Dee J. Andella (Chief); Joe M. Barlett, Frank S. Oliverio, William W. Smith, James R. Whitney PHOTOGRAPHICSTAFF:Director of Photography: Robert E. Gilka. Assistant Directors:B. Anthony Stewart, Dean Conger. Film Review: Albert Moldvay (Chief); Guy W. Starling (Assistant Chief). PictorialResearch:Walter Meay ers Edwards (Chief). Photographers: James P. Blair, Bruce Dale, John E. Fletcher, Otis Imboden, Emory Kristof, Bates Littlehales, George F. Mobley, Robert S. Oakes, Winfield Parks, Joseph J. Scherschel, Robert F. Sisson, James L. Stanfield Photographic Laboratory: Edwin L. Wisherd (Chief); Milton A. Ford, Donald McBain, Claude E. Petrone, Carl M. Shrader RELATED EDUCATIONAL SERVICES OF THE SOCIETY Cartography-Maps, atlases, and globes: Chief Cartographer: Wellman Cham berlin. Associate Chief Cartographer:Athos D. Grazzini. Assistant Chief: William T. Peele. Base Compilation: Charles L. Stern (Supervisor), James W. Killion. Name Compilation: Donald A. Jaeger (Supervisor), Manuela G. Kogutowicz, George E. Stuart. Map Drawings: Douglas A. Strobel (Super visor), Robert W. Northrop, Thomas A. Wall. Map Editing: Ted Dachtera (Supervisor), Russel G. Fritz, Richard K. Rogers, Thomas A. Walsh. Projec tions: David W. Cook. Layout and Design: John F. Dorr, Harry C. Siddeley. Revisions: Richard J. Darley. Administrative Assistant: Catherine M. Hart Books: Merle Severy (Chief); Edwards Park (Associate Chief); Seymour I.. Fishbein (Assistant Chief), Thomas B. Allen, Ross Bennett, Charles O. Ilyman, James P. Kelly, Anne Dirkes Kobor, John J. Putman, Berry L. Reece, Jr., David F. Robinson Special Publications:Robert L. Breeden (Chief); Donald J. Crump (Assistant Chief), Josephine B. Bolt, Bruce Brander, David R. Bridge, Johanna G. Farren, Ronald M. Fisher, Mary Ann Harrell, Bryan Hodgson, Geraldine Linder, Michael E. Long, Philip B. Silcott, Joseph A. Taney School Service: Ralph Gray (Chief); Arthur P. Miller, Jr. (Assistant Chief), Richard M. Crum, Phyllis Greene, Charles H. Sloan, Janis Knudsen Wheat News Service: Windsor P. Booth (Chief); Matt C. McDade (Assistant Chief), Edward Cornish, Donald J. Frederick, Sabin Robbins, Paul Sampson; Isabel Clarke (Assistant) Television: Robert C. Doyle (Chief); Dennis B. Kane (Assistant Chief), David Cooper; Patricia F. Northrop (Administrative Assistant) Lectures: Joanne M. Hess (Chief), Robert G. Fleegal, Mary W. McKinney, Gerald L. Wiley Explorers Hall: T. Keilor Bentley (Curator-Director) EUROPEANOFFICES: W. Edward Roscher (Associate Secretary and Director), II Stanhope Gate, Mayfair, London, W. I, England; Jacques Ostier, 6 rue des Petits-Peres, 75-Paris 2e, France ADVERTISING: Director:Harley L. McDevitt, 630 Fifth Ave., New York, N.Y. 10020. Managers-National:William A. Boeger, Jr.; Eastern: Joseph T. Feeney, New York. Midwestern: William Turgeon, Chicago. Los Angeles: Jack V. Sheehan. San Francisco:Thomas Martz. Automotive: John F. Grant, New York. Travel: Robert W. Horan, New York COPYRIGHT © 1968 NATIONALGEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY,17THANDM STS. N.W., WASHINGTON, D. 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