National Geographic : 1968 Aug
going into the nerve centers of the Apollo spacecraft and the new Air Force fighter-bomber-the F-111A -and they helped Surveyor take pictures on the moon. In all these applications, stream lined size and weight are obviously important. "But for consumer goods and services," as Dr. Jack Morton, Vice President of the Bell Telephone Laboratories, points out, "our ob jective is not just to make things tiny. Rather, we use miniaturiza tion to get performance and econo my we could not get otherwise. "If we cut transistors apart, fasten on leads, encase them, and then put EKTACHROME(LEFT)AND KODACHROME BYJAMESP. BLAIR© N.G.S . One circuit board replaces many, here arrayed around it, after IC's miniaturized the computer aboard the Minuteman II, the Nation's chief strategic missile. The missile's light, bread box-size brain, only half as large as the transistorized computer carried by Minuteman I, helps increase range and payload. Minuteman gave the major impetus for developing the integrated circuit. Mighty midget, a chip that houses 44 electronic components slips through the eye of an ordinary sew ing needle. Such IC compactness pays off not only in space saved but in reduced time required for electric ity to pass from component to com ponent-a vital factor in computers that must do hundreds of millions of computations in a second. Miniature circuitry (left) shows its anatomy in this extraordinary X- KODACHROME BYVICTORR. BOSWELL,JR. raylike view of a chip, magnified 250 times in a scanning elec tron microscope at the Westinghouse Research Laboratories in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. On a surface only 4/100 of an inch across, two mazelike resistors and several rectangular transis tors seem to glow white in reaction to the microscope's electron stream. Light blue indicates the aluminum surface "wiring" that connects components; red lines are isolating walls.