National Geographic : 1968 Sep
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY WASHINGTON, D. C. Organized "for the increase and diffusion of geographic knowledge" Z '/ GILBERT HOVEY GROSVENOR Editor, 1899-1954; President, 1920-1954 ' Chairman of the Board, 1954-1966 THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY is chartered in Washington, D. C., in accordance with the laws of the United States, as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization for increasing and diffusing geographic knowledge and promoting research and exploration. Since 1890 the Society has supported 449 explorations and research projects, adding immeasurably to man's knowledge of earth, sea, and sky. It diffuses this knowledge through its monthly journal, NA TIONAL GEOGRAPHIC; more than 26 million maps distributed each year; its books, globes, atlases, and filmstrips; 30 School Bulletins a year in color; information serv ices to press, radio, and television; technical monographs; exhibits from around the world in Explorers Hall; and a nationwide series of programs on television. Articles and photographs of travel, natural history, and expeditions to far places are desired. For material used, generous remuneration is made. MELVIN M. PAYNE, President FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Vice President and Editor LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Vice President for Research and Exploration ROBERT E. DOYLE, Vice President and Secretary THOMAS M. BEERS, Vice President and Associate Secretary GILBERT M. GROSVENOR, Vice President and Associate Editor HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON, Treasurer OWEN R. ANDERSON, HERMAN J. A . C. ARENS, WILLIAM T. BELL, HERBERT T. HENDERSON, W. EDWARD ROSCHER, C. VERNON SANDERS, Associate Secretaries BOARD OF TRUSTEES ME.VILLE BELL. GROSVENOR Chairman of the Board and Editor-in-Chief THOMAS W. McKNEW, Advisory Chairman of the Board LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Former Secretary, Smithsonian Institution LEO OTIS COLBERT, Rear Admiral, U. S . Coast and Geodetic Survey (Ret.) LLOYD H. ELLIOTT, President, George Washington University CRAWFORD H. GREENEWALT Chairman, Finance Committee, E. 1. du Pont de Nemours & Company GILBERT M. GROSVENOR Associate Editor, National Geographic ARTHUR B. HANSON, General Counsel, National Geographic Society CARYL P. HASKINS, President, Carnegie Institution of Washington EMORY S. LAND, Vice Admiral, U. S. Navy (Ret.), Former President, Air Transport Association CURTIS E. LEMAY, Former Chief of Staff, U. S. Air Force H. RANDOLPH MADDOX Vice President, American Telephone & Telegraph Company (Ret.) WM. McCHESNEY MARTIN, JR. Chairman, Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System BENJAMIN M. McKELWAY Editorial Chairman, Washington Star MELVIN M. PAYNE, President, National Geographic Society LAURANCE S. ROCKEFELLER President, Rockefeller Brothers Fund JUAN T. TRIPPE, Honorary Chairman of the Board, Pan American World Airways FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH Editor, National Geographic JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR., Former Assistant Secretary of the Navy EARL WARREN Chief Justice of the United States JAMES E. WEBB Administrator, National Aeronautics and Space Administration ALEXANDER WETMORE Research Associate, Smithsonian Institution LLOYD B. WILSON (Emeritus) Honorary Board Chairman, Chesapeake & Potomac Telephone Company CONRAD L. WIRTH, Former Director, National Park Service LOUIS B. WRIGHT. Former Director, Folger Shakespeare Library COMMITTEE FOR RESEARCH AND EXPLORATION LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Chairman ALEXANDER WETMORE and MELVIN M. PAYNE, Vice Chairmen LEO OTIS COLBERT, CARYL P. HASKINS, A. REMINGTON KEL LOGG, Research Associate, Smithsonian Institution, EMORY S. LAND, T. DALE STEWART, Senior Scientist, Office of Anthropology, Smithsonian Insti tution, MATTHEW W. STIRLING, Research Associate, Smithsonian Institu tion, JAMES H. WAKELIN,JR.,CONRAD L. WIRTH, PAULA. ZAHL, and the senior officers of the Society; BARRY C. BISHOP, Secretary on leave; EDWIN W. SNIDER, Secretary Assistant Secretaries of the Society: CHARLES P. BIXEL, FRANK S. DELK, JOSEPH B. HOGAN, RAYMOND T. McELLIGOTT, JR. Assistant Treasurer: WILLIAM H. McCAULEY Leonard J. Grant, Editorial Assistant to the President; Edwin W. Snider, Richard E. Pearson, Administrative Assistants to the President; Judith N. Dixon, Ad ministrative Assistant to the Chairman and Editor-in-Chief; Lenore W. Kessler, Administrative Assistant to the Advisory Chairman of the Board SECRETARY'SSTAFF:Administrative: Earl Corliss, Jr., Ward S. Phelps. Account ing: Jay H. Givans, George F. Fogle, Alfred J. Hayre, William G. McGhee, Martha Allen Baggett. Statistics: Everett C. Brown, Thomas M. Kent. Retire ment: Mary L. Whitmore (Assistant Supervisor). Payroll: Dorothy L. Dameron (Assistant Supervisor). Procurement: J. P . M. Johnston, Robert G. Corey, Robert C. Ellis, Jr., Sheila H. Immel, Margaret A. Shearer. Membership Research: Charles T. Kneeland. Membership Fulfillment: Roy J. Klockenbrink. Member Relations: Paul F. Moize. Computer Center: John Goedel. Secretary's Files: Mozelle L. Downs. Promotion:Stan Jennings, E. M. Pusey, Jr., Gordon Young, Robert J. Warfel. Printing:Joe M. Barlett, Frank S. Oliverio. Production Con trol: James P. Kelly. Personnel:James B. Mahon, Adrian L. Loftin, Jr., Nellie E. Sinclair. Medical: Thomas L. Hartman, M. D. Translation: Zbigniew Jan Lutyk 4 COVER: Her baby swaddled against the desert's harsh ness, a nomad tribeswoman of Afghanistan prepares for a long day's trek by camel caravan (page 336). KODACHROME BY THOMASJ. ABERCROMBIE© N.G.S. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Editor-in-Chief and Board Chairman MELVIN M. PAYNE President of the Society FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Editor GILBERT M. GROSVENOR, FRANC SHOR, Associate Editors Senior Assistant Editors Allan C. Fisher, Jr., Kenneth MacLeish, John Scofield Assistant Editors: Andrew H. Brown, James Cerruti, Robert L. Conly, W. E. Garrett, Edward J. Linehan, Carolyn Bennett Patterson, Howell Walker, Kenneth F. Weaver Senior Editorial Staff: Lonnelle Aikman, Jules B. Billard, Rowe Findley, Wil liam Graves, Stuart E. Jones, Robert P. Jordan, Joseph Judge, Nathaniel T. Kenney, Samuel W. Matthews, Bart McDowell; Senior Natural Scientist: Paul A. Zahl Foreign Editorial Staff: Luis Marden (Chief); Thomas J. Abercrombie, Howard La Fay, Helen and Frank Schreider, Volkmar Wentzel, Peter T. White EditorialStaff: Wayne Barrett, Thomas Y. Canby, Louis de la Haba, Alice J. Hall, Werner Janney, Jay Johnston, Elizabeth A. Moize, Ethel A. Starbird EditorialLayout: Howard E. Paine (Chief); Charles C. Uhl, John M. Lavery Geographic Art: William N. Palmstrom (Chief); Gilbert H. Emerson (Asst. Chief). Artists: Lisa Biganzoli, William H. Bond, John W. Lothers, Robert C. Magis, Robert W. Nicholson, Ned M. Seidler. CartographicArtists:Victor J. Kelley, Snejinka Stefanoff. Research: Walter Q. Crowe (Supervisor), George W. Beatty, John D. Garst, Jean B. McConville, Dorothy A. Nichol son, Eugene M. Scheel, John P. Wood. Isaac Ortiz (Production). Marie L. Barnes (Administrative Assistant) Editorial Research: Margaret G. Bledsoe (Chief); Ann K. Wendt (Associate Chief), Elisabeth J. Chappell, Ledlie L. Dinsmore, Margery G. Dunn, Jan Holderness, Levenia Loder, Frances H. Parker, Patricia Rosenborg, Eliza beth C. Wagner GeographicResearch: George Crossette (Chief); Newton V. Blakeslee (Assist ant Chief), Leon J. Canova, Margaret Ladd, Virginia L. Baza, John A. Weeks Phototypography:John McConnell (Chief) Library: Virginia Carter Hills (Librarian); Margery K. Barkdull (Assistant Librarian), Melba Barnes, Vera Cassilly, Katharine P. O'Donnell, Louise A. Robinson, Esther Ann Manion (Librarian Emeritus) Administration: Betty T. Sanborne, Administrative Assistant to the Editor; Harriet Carey, Virginia H. Finnegan, Joyce W. McKean, Winifred M. Myers, Shirley Neff (Editorial Assistants); Dorothy M. Corson (Indexes); Rosalie K. Millerd, Jeanne S. Duiker (Files); Evelyn Fox (Transportation) ILLUSTRATIONS STAFF:Illustrations Editor: Herbert S. Wilburn, Jr. Associate Illustrations Editor: Thomas R. Smith. Art Editor: Andrew Poggenpohl. Assistant Illustrations Editors: Mary S. Griswold, O. Louis Mazzatenta, Charles Allmon (Incoming Photographs). Layout and Production:Arthur A. Terry. Senior Picture Editors: Charlene Murphy, Robert S. Patton. Picture Editors: Manuel L. Lopez, Jon Schneeberger. Research: Paula C. Simmons. Barbara A. Shattuck (Assistant) Artists: Walter A. Weber (Naturalist), Peter V. Bianchi Engravingand Printing: Dee J. Andella (Chief); William W. Smith, James R. Whitney PHOTOGRAPHIC STAFF:Director of Photography: Robert E. Gilka. Assistant Directors: B. Anthony Stewart, Dean Conger. Film Review: Albert Moldvay (Chief); Guy W. Starling (Assistant Chief). PictorialResearch:Walter Meay ers Edwards (Chief). Photographers:James P. Blair, Bruce Dale, John E. Fletcher, Otis Imboden, Emory Kristof, Bates Littlehales, George F. Mobley, Robert S. Oakes, Winfield Parks, Joseph J. Scherschel, Robert F. Sisson, James L. Stanfield Photographic Laboratory:Edwin L. Wisherd (Chief); Milton A. Ford, Donald McBain, Claude E. Petrone, Carl M. Shrader RELATED EDUCATIONAL SERVICES OF THE SOCIETY Cartography-Maps,atlases, and globes: Chief Cartographer:Wellman Cham berlin. Associate Chief Cartographer:Athos D. Grazzini. Assistant Chief: William T. Peele. Base Compilation: Charles L. Stern (Supervisor), James W. Killion. Name Compilation: Donald A. Jaeger (Supervisor), Manuela G. Kogutowicz, George E. Stuart. Map Drawings: Douglas A. Strobel (Super visor), Robert W. Northrop, Thomas A. Wall. Map Editing: Ted Dachtera (Supervisor), Russel G. Fritz, Richard K. Rogers, Thomas A. Walsh. Projec tions: David W. Cook. Layout and Design: John F. Dorr, Harry C. Siddeley. Revisions: Richard J. Darley. Administrative Assistant: Catherine M. Hart Books: Merle Severy (Chief); Edwards Park (Associate Chief); Seymour L. Fishbein (Assistant Chief), Thomas B. Allen, Ross Bennett, Charles O. Hyman, Anne Dirkes Kobor, John J. Putman, Berry L. Reece, Jr., David F. Robinson, Werner L. Weber Special Publications: Robert L. Breeden (Chief); Donald J. Crump (Assistant Chief), Josephine B. Bolt, Bruce Brander, David R. Bridge, Johanna G. Farren, Ronald M. Fisher, Mary Ann Harrell, Bryan Hodgson, Geraldine Linder, Michael E. Long, Philip B. Silcott, Joseph A. Taney School Service: Ralph Gray (Chief, and Editor of National Geographic School Bulletin); Arthur P. Miller, Jr. (Assistant Chief, and Associate Editor of School Bulletin), Richard M. Crum, Jeanne A. Davis, Joseph B. Goodwin, Phyllis Greene, Charles H. Sloan, Janis Knudsen Wheat. EducationalFilm strips: David S. Boyer (Chief) News Service: Windsor P. Booth (Chief); Paul Sampson (Assistant Chief), Ed ward Cornish, Donald J. Frederick, Sabin Robbins; Isabel Clarke (Assistant) Television: Robert C. Doyle (Chief); Dennis B. Kane (Assistant Chief), David Cooper; Patricia F. Northrop (Administrative Assistant) Lectures: Joanne M. Hess (Chief); Robert G. Fleegal, Mary W. McKinney, Gerald L. Wiley Explorers Hall: T. Keilor Bentley (Curator-Director) EUROPEANOFFICES:W. Edward Roseher (Associate Secretary and Director), 11 Stanhope Gate, Mayfair, London, W. 1, England; Jacques Ostier, 6 rue des Petits-Peres, 75-Paris 2e, France ADVERTISING:Director:Harley L. McDevitt; Manager:William A. Boeger, Jr., 630 Fifth Ave., New York, N.Y . 10020. Regional managers-Eastern: Joseph T. Feeney, New York. Midwestern: William Turgeon, Chicago. Los Angeles: Jack V. Sheehan. San Francisco:Thomas Martz. Automotive: John F. Grant, New York. Travel: Robert W. Horan, New York. International: James L. Till, New York COPYRIGHT© 1968 NATIONALGEOGRAPHICSOCIETY,17THANDM STS. N.W ., WASHINGTON, D.C. 20036. ALL RIGHTSRESERVED.REPRODUCTION OR USEOFTHEWHOLEORANYPARTOF THECONTENTSWITHOUTWRITTENPERMISSIONIS PROHIBITED.PRINTEDIN U.S .A. SECOND CLASSPOSTAGEPOSTAGE PAIDAT WASHINGTON,D.C., AND AT ADDITIONALMAILINGOFFICES.COVER DESIGNANDTITLEPROTECTED BYINTERNATIONAL TRADEMARK.$9.00 A YEAR,$1.00 A COPY.