National Geographic : 1969 Jan
NATIONAL GGO Po GEOGRAPHIC v SOCIETY WASHINGTON, D. C. Organized "for the increaseand diffusion of geographic knowledge" GILBERT HOVEY GROSVENOR O T Editor, 1899-1954;President, 1920-1954 Chairman of the Board, 1954-1966 T HE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY is chartered in Washington, D. C., in accordance with the laws of the United States, as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization for increasing and diffusing geographic knowledge and promoting research and exploration. Since 1890 the Society has supported 462 explorations and research projects, adding immeasurably to man's knowledge of earth, sea, and sky. It diffuses this knowledge through its monthly journal, NA TIONAL GEOGRAPHIC; more than 24 million maps distributed each year; its books, globes, atlases, and filmstrips; 30 School Bulletins a year in color; information serv ices to press, radio, and television; technical reports; exhibits from around the world in Explorers Hall; and a nationwide series of programs on television. Articles and photographs of travel, natural history, and expeditions to far places are desired. For material used, generous remuneration is made. MELVIN M. PAYNE, President FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Vice President and Editor LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Vice President for Research and Exploration ROBERT E. DOYLE, Vice President and Secretary THOMAS M. BEERS, Vice President and Associate Secretary GILBERT M. GROSVENOR, Vice President and Associate Editor HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON, Treasurer OWEN R. ANDERSON, HERMAN J. A . C . ARENS, WILLIAM T. BELL, HERBERT T. HENDERSON, W. EDWARD ROSCHER, C. VERNON SANDERS, Associate Secretaries BOARD OF TRUSTEES MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Chairman of the Board and Editor-in-Chief THOMAS W. McKNEW, Advisory Chairman of the Board LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Former BENJAMIN M. McKELWAY Secretary, Smithsonian Institution Editorial Chairman, Washington Star LEO OTIS COLBERT, Rear Admiral, MELVIN M. PAYNE, President, U. S . Coast and Geodetic Survey (Ret.) National Geographic Society LLOYD H. ELLIOTT, President, LAURANCE S. ROCKEFELLER George Washington University President, Rockefeller Brothers Fund CRAWFORD H. GREENEWALT JUAN T. TRIPPE, Honorary Chairman, Finance Committee, Chairman of the Board, E. I . du Pont de Nemours & Company Pan American World Airways GILBERT M. GROSVENOR FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH Associate Editor, National Geographic Editor, National Geographic ARTHUR B. HANSON, General JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR., Former Counsel, National Geographic Society Assistant Secretary of the Navy CARYL P. HASKINS, President, EARL WARREN Carnegie Institution of Washington Chief Justice of the United States EMORY S. LAND, Vice Admiral, JAMES E. WEBB, Former EMORY S. LAND, Vice Admiral, Administrator, National Aeronautics U. S. Navy (Ret.), Former President, and Space Administration Air Transport Association AA in itMioR ALEXANDER WETMORE CURTIS E. LEMAY, Former Chief Research Associate of Staff, U. S. Air Force Smithsonian Institueion H. RANDOLPH MADDOX LLOYD B. WILSON (Emeritus) Vice President, American Telephone Honorary Board Chairman, & Telegraph Company (Ret.) Chesapeake & Potomac WM. McCHESNEY MARTIN, JR. Telephone Company Chairman, Board of Governors, CONRAD L. WIRTH, Former Federal Reserve System Director, National Park Service LOUIS B. WRIGHT, Former Director, Folger Shakespeare Library COMMITTEE FOR RESEARCH AND EXPLORATION LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Chairman ALEXANDER WETMORE and MELVIN M. PAYNE, Vice Chairmen LEO OTIS COLBERT, CARYL P. HASKINS, A. REMINGTON KEL LOGG, Research Associate, Smithsonian Institution, EMORY S. LAND, T. DALE STEWART, Senior Scientist, Office of Anthropology, Smithsonian Insti tution, MATTHEW W. STIRLING, Research Associate, Smithsonian Institu tion, JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR., CONRAD L. WIRTH, PAUL A. ZAHL, and the senior officers of the Society; BARRY C. BISHOP, Secretary on leave; EDWIN W. SNIDER, Secretary Assistant Secretaries of the Society: CHARLES P. BIXEL, FRANK S. DELK, JOSEPH B. HOGAN, RAYMOND T. McELLIGOTT, JR. Assistant Treasurer: WILLIAM H. McCAULEY Leonard J. Grant, Editorial Assistant to the President; Edwin W. Snider, Richard E. Pearson, Administrative Assistants to the President; Judith N. Dixon, Ad ministrative Assistant to the Chairman and Editor-in-Chief; Lenore W. Kessler, Administrative Assistant to the Advisory Chairman of the Board SECRETARY'SSTAFF:Administrative: Earl Corliss, Jr., Ward S. Phelps. Account ing: Jay H. Givans, George F. Fogle, Alfred J. Hayre, William G. McGhee, Martha Allen Baggett. Statistics: Everett C. Brown, Thomas M. Kent. Retire ment: Mary L. Whitmore (Assistant Supervisor). Payroll: Dorothy L. Dameron (Assistant Supervisor). Procurement: J. P . M. Johnston, Robert G. Corey, Robert C. Ellis, Jr., Sheila H. Immel, Margaret A. Shearer. Membership Research: Charles T. Kneeland. Membership Fulfillment: Roy J. Klockenbrink. Member Relations: Paul F. Moize. Computer Center: John Goedel. Secretary's Files: Mozelle L. Downs. Promotion:Stan Jennings, E. M. Pusey, Jr., Robert J. Warfel. Printing:Joe M. Barlett, Frank S. Oliverio. Production Control: James P. Kelly. Personnel:James B. Mahon, Adrian L. Loftin, Jr., Glenn G. Pepperman, Nellie E. Sinclair. Medical: Thomas L. Hartman, M. D. Translation: Zbigniew Jan Lutyk 4 COVER: Slogging through a monsoon downpour, a rice farmer and his water buffalo prepare a field for planting on the island of Taiwan (page 36). XODACHROME BY CHARLESMOORE,SLACKSTAR© N.G.S . NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Editor-in-Chief and Board Chairman MELVIN M. PAYNE President of the Society FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH,Editor GILBERT M. GROSVENOR, FRANC SHOR, Associate Editors Senior Assistant Editors Allan C. Fisher, Jr., Kenneth MacLeish, John Scofield Assistant Editors: Andrew H. Brown, James Cerruti, Robert L. Conly, W. E. Garrett, Edward J. Linehan, Carolyn Bennett Patterson, Howell Walker, Kenneth F. Weaver Senior Editorial Staff: Lonnelle Aikman, Jules B. Billard, Rowe Findley, Wil liam Graves, Stuart E. Jones, Robert P. Jordan, Joseph Judge, Nathaniel T. Kenney, Samuel W. Matthews, Bart McDowell; Senior Natural Scientist: Paul A. Zahl Foreign Editorial Staff: Luis Marden (Chief); Thomas J. Abercrombie, Howard La Fay, Helen and Frank Schreider, Volkmar Wentzel, Peter T. White Editorial Staff: Thomas Y. Canby, Louis de la Haba, Alice J. Hall, Werner Janney, Jay Johnston, Elizabeth A. Moize, Ethel A. Starbird, Gordon Young Editorial Layout: Howard E. Paine (Chief); Charles C. Uhl, John M. Lavery Geographic Art: William N. Palmstrom (Chief). Artists: Lisa Biganzoli, Wil liam H. Bond, John W. Lothers, Robert C. Magis, Robert W. Nicholson, Ned M. Seidler. CartographicArtists: Victor J. Kelley, Snejinka Stefanoff. Re search: Walter Q. Crowe (Supervisor), Virginia L. Baza, George W. Beatty, John D. Garst, Jean B. McConville, Dorothy A. Nicholson, Eugene M. Scheel, Isaac Ortiz (Production). Marie L. Barnes (Administrative Assistant) Editorial Research: Margaret G. Bledsoe (Chief); Ann K. Wendt (Associate Chief), Elisabeth J. Chappell, Ledlie L. Dinsmore, Margery G. Dunn, Jan Holderness, Levenia Loder, Frances H. Parker, Patricia Rosenborg, Eliza beth C. Wagner Geographic Research: George Crossette (Chief); Newton V. Blakeslee (Assist ant Chief), Leon J. Canova, Lesley B. Lane, John A. Weeks Phototypography: John McConnell (Chief) Library: Virginia Carter Hills (Librarian); Margery K. Barkdull (Assistant Librarian), Melba Barnes, Vera Cassilly, Louise A. Robinson, Esther Ann Manion (Librarian Emeritus) Administration: Betty T. Sanborne, Administrative Assistant to the Editor; Harriet Carey, Virginia H. Finnegan, Joyce W. McKean, Winifred M. Myers, Shirley Neff (Editorial Assistants); Dorothy M. Corson (Indexes); Rosalie K. Millerd, Jeanne S. Duiker (Files); Evelyn Fox (Transportation); Carolyn F. Clewell (Correspondence) ILLUSTRATIONS STAFF:Illustrations Editor: Herbert S. Wilburn, Jr. Associate Illustrations Editor: Thomas R. Smith. Art Editor: Andrew Poggenpohl. Assistant Illustrations Editors: Mary S. Griswold, O. Louis Mazzatenta, Charles Allmon (Incoming Photographs). Senior Picture Editors: Charlene Murphy, Robert S. Patton. Picture Editors: Manuel L. Lopez, Jon Schnee berger. Research: Paula C. Simmons. Barbara A. Shattuck (Assistant) Artists: Walter A. Weber (Naturalist), Peter V. Bianchi Engraving and Printing: Dee J. Andella (Chief); William W. Smith, James R. Whitney PHOTOGRAPHIC STAFF:Director of Photography: Robert E. Gilka. Assistant Directors: B. Anthony Stewart, Dean Conger. Film Review: Albert Moldvay (Chief); Guy W. Starling (Assistant Chief). PictorialResearch: Walter Meay ers Edwards (Chief). Photographers:James P. Blair, Bruce Dale, John E. Fletcher, Otis Imboden, Emory Kristof, Bates Littlehales, George F. Mobley, Robert S. Oakes, Winfield Parks, Joseph J. Scherschel, Robert F. Sisson, James L. Stanfield PhotographicLaboratory: Edwin L. Wisherd (Chief); Milton A. Ford, Donald McBain, Claude E. Petrone, Carl M. Shrader RELATED EDUCATIONAL SERVICES OF THE SOCIETY Cartography-Maps, atlases, and globes: Chief Cartographer: Wellman Cham berlin. Associate Chief Cartographer:Athos D. Grazzini. Assistant Chief: William T. Peele. Base Compilation: Charles L. Stern (Supervisor), James W. Killion. Name Compilation: Donald A. Jaeger (Supervisor), Manuela G. Kogutowicz, George E. Stuart. Map Drawings: Douglas A. Strobel (Super visor), Robert W. Northrop, Thomas A. Wall. Map Editing: Ted Dachtera (Supervisor), Russel G. Fritz, Richard K. Rogers, Thomas A. Walsh. Projec tions: David W. Cook. Layout and Design: John F. Dorr, Harry C. Siddeley. Revisions: Richard J. Darley. Administrative Assistant: Catherine M. Hart Books: Merle Severy (Chief); Edwards Park (Associate Chief); Seymour L. Fishbein (Assistant Chief), Thomas B. Allen, Ross Bennett, Charles 0. Hyman, Anne Dirkes Kobor, John J. Putman, Berry L. Reece, Jr., David F. Robinson, Werner L. Weber Special Publications: Robert L. Breeden (Chief); Donald J. Crump (Assistant Chief), Josephine B. Bolt, David R. Bridge, Johanna G. Farren, Ronald M. Fisher, Mary Ann Harrell, Bryan Hodgson, Geraldine Linder, Michael E. Long, Philip B. Silcott, Joseph A. Taney School Service: Ralph Gray (Chief, and Editor of National Geographic School Bulletin); Arthur P. Miller, Jr. (Assistant Chief, and Associate Editor of School Bulletin), Richard M. Crum, Jeanne A. Davis, Joseph B. Goodwin, Phyllis Greene, Charles H. Sloan, Janis Knudsen Wheat. Educational Film strips: David S. Boyer (Chief) News Service: Windsor P. Booth (Chief); Paul Sampson (Assistant Chief), Ed ward Cornish, Donald J. Frederick, Sabin Robbins; Isabel Clarke (Assistant) Television: Robert C. Doyle (Chief); Dennis B. Kane (Assistant Chief), David Cooper; Patricia F. Northrop (Administrative Assistant) Lectures: Joanne M. Hess (Chief); Robert G. Fleegal, Mary W. McKinney, Gerald L. Wiley Explorers Hall: T. Keilor Bentley (Curator-Director) EUROPEANOFFICES:W. Edward Roscher (Associate Secretary and Director), 11 Stanhope Gate, Mayfair, London, W. 1, England; Jacques Ostier, 6 rue des Petits-Peres, 75-Paris 2e, France ADVERTISING:Director: Harley L. McDevitt; Manager: William A. Boeger, Jr., 630 Fifth Ave., New York, N.Y. 10020. Regional managers-Eastern: Joseph T. Feeney, New York. Midwestern: William Turgeon, Chicago. Los Angeles: Jack V. Sheehan. San Francisco:Thomas Martz. Automotive: John F. Grant, New York. Travel: Gerald A. Van Splinter, New York. Interna tional:James L. Till, New York COPYRIGHT© 1968 NATIONALGEOGRAPHICSOCIETY,17TH ANDMSTS. N.W ., WASHINGTON, D.C. 20036. ALL RIGHTSRESERVED.REPRODUCTION OR USE OF THEWHOLEORANYPARTOF THE CONTENTSWITHOUTWRITTENPERMISSIONIS PROHIBITED.PRINTEDIN U.S.A. SECOND CLASS POSTAGEPAID AT WASHINGTON,D. C ., ANDAT ADDITIONALMAILINGOFFICES. COVER DESIGNANDTITLEPROTECTEDBYINTERNATIONAL TRADEMARK.$9.00 A YEAR,$1.00 A COPY.