National Geographic : 1969 May
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY WASHINGTON, D. C. Organized "forthe increase and diffusion of geographic knowledge" GILBERT HOVEY GROSVENOR Editor, 1899-1954; President, 1920-1954 Chairman of the Board, 1954-1966 HE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY is chartered in Washington, D. C., in accordance with the laws of the United States, as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization for increasing and diffusing geographic knowledge and promoting research and exploration. Since 1890 the Society has supported 492 explorations and research projects, adding immeasurably to man's knowledge of earth, sea, and sky. It diffuses this knowledge through its monthly journal, NA TIONAL.GEOGRAPHIC; more than 24 million maps distributed each year; its books, globes, atlases, and filmstrips; 30 School Bulletins a year in color; information serv ices to press, radio, and television; technical reports; exhibits from around the world in Explorers Hall; and a nationwide series of programs on television. Articles and photographs of travel, natural history, and expeditions to far places are desired. For material used, generous remuneration is made. MELVIN M. PAYNE, President FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Vice President and Editor LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Vice President for Research and Exploration ROBERT E. DOYLE, Vice President and Secretary THOMAS M. BEERS, Vice President and Associate Secretary GILBERT M. GROSVENOR, Vice President and Associate Editor HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON, Treasurer OWEN R. ANDERSON, HERMAN J. A . C . ARENS, WILLIAM T. BELL, 1.EONARD J. GRANT, HERBERT T. HENDERSON, W. EDWARD ROSCHER, C. VERNON SANDERS, Associate Secretaries BOARD OF TRUSTEES MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Chairman of the Board and Editor-in-Chief THOMAS W. McKNEW, Advisory Chairman of the Board LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Former Secretary, Smithsonian Institution LLOYD H. ELLIOTT, President, George Washington University CRAWFORD H. GREENEWALT Chairman, Finance Committee, E. I . du Pont de Nemours & Company GILBERT M. GROSVENOR Associate Editor, National Geographic ARTHUR B. HANSON, General Counsel, National Geographic Society CARYL P. HASKINS, President, Carnegie Institution of Washington EMORY S. LAND, Vice Admiral, U. S. Navy (Ret.), Former President, Air Transport Association CURTIS E. I.EMAY, Former Chief of Staff, U. S. Air Force H. RANDOLPH MADDOX Vice President, American Telephone & Telegraph Company (Ret.) WM. McCHESNEY MARTIN, JR. Chairman, Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System BENJAMIN M. McKELWAY Editorial Chairman, Washington Star MELVIN M. PAYNE, President, National Geographic Society LAURANCE S. ROCKEFELLER President, Rockefeller Brothers Fund JUAN T. TRIPPE, Honorary Chairman of the Board, Pan American World Airways FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH Editor, National Geographic JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR., Former Assistant Secretary of the Navy EARL WARREN Chief Justice of the United States JAMES E. WEBB, Former Administrator, National Aeronautics and Space Administration ALEXANDER WETMORE Research Associate, Smithsonian Institution LLOYD B. WILSON (Emeritus) Honorary Board Chairman, Chesapeake & Potomac Telephone Company CONRAD L. WIRTH, Former Director, National Park Service LOUIS B. WRIGHT, Former Director, Folger Shakespeare Library COMMITTEE FOR RESEARCH AND EXPLORATION LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Chairman ALEXANDER WETMORE and MELVIN M. PAYNE, Vice Chairmen CARYL P. HASKINS, A. REMINGTON KELLOGG, Research Associate, Smithsonian Institution, EMORY S. LAN D,T. DALE STEWART, Senior Scien tist, Office of Anthropology. Smithsonian Institution, MATTHEW W. STIR LING, Research Associate, Smithsonian Institution, JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR., CONRAD L. WIRTH, PAUL A. ZAHL, and the senior officers of the Soci ety; BARRY C. BISHOP, Secretary on leave; EDWIN W. SNIDER, Secretary Assistant Secretaries of the Society: CHARLES P. BIXEL, FRANK S. DELK, JOHN GOEDEL, JOSEPH B. HOGAN, RAYMOND T. McELLIGOTT, JR., EDWIN W. SNIDER Assistant Treasurers: WILLIAM H. McCAULEY,WILLIAM H. HAMILTON Leonard J. Grant, Editorial Assistant to the President; Edwin W. Snider, Richard E. Pearson, Administrative Assistants to the President; Judith N. Dixon, Ad ministrative Assistant to the Chairman and Editor-in-Chief; Ienore W. Kessler, Administrative Assistant to the Advisory Chairman of the Board SECRETARY'SSTAFF:Administrative: Earl Corliss, Jr., Ward S. Phelps. Account ing: Jay H. Givans, George F. Fogle, Alfred J. Hayre, William G. McGhee, Martha Allen Baggett. Statistics: Everett C. Brown, Thomas M. Kent. Retire ment: Mary I.. Whitmore (Assistant Supervisor). Payroll: Dorothy L. Dameron (Assistant Supervisor). Procurement: J. P. M. Johnston, Robert G. Corey, Robert C. Ellis, Jr., Sheila H. Immel, Margaret A. Shearer. MembershipResearch: Charles T. Kneeland. Membership Fulfillment: Roy J. Klockenbrink. Member Relations: Paul F. Moize. Computer Center: John Goedel. Secretary's Files: Mozelle L. Downs. Promotion:Stan Jennings, E. M. Pusey, Jr., Robert J. Warfel. Printing:Joe M. Barlett, Frank S. Oliverio. Production Control:James P. Kelly. Personnel:James B. Mahon, Adrian L. Loftin, Jr., Glenn G. Pepperman, Nellie E. Sinclair. Medical: Thomas L. Hartman, M. D. Translation:Zbigniew Jan Lutyk 4 COVER: Colossal face of Ramesses II is lowered into place during reassembly of the 3,200-year-old Egyptian temples at Abu Simbel (pages 730-31). KODACHROME BYGEORGGERSTER© N.G.S. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Editor-in-Chief and Board Chairman MELVIN M. PAYNE President of the Society FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Editor GILBERT M. GROSVENOR, FRANC SHOR, Associate Editors Senior Assistant Editors Allan C. Fisher, Jr., Kenneth MacLeish, John Scofield Assistant Editors: Andrew H. Brown, James Cerruti, Robert L. Conly, W. E. Garrett, Edward J. Linehan, Carolyn Bennett Patterson, Howell Walker, Kenneth F. Weaver Senior Editorial Staff: Lonnelle Aikman, Jules B. Billard, Rowe Findley, Wil liam Graves, Jay Johnston, Stuart E. Jones, Robert P. Jordan, Joseph Judge, Nathaniel T. Kenney, Samuel W. Matthews, Bart McDowell; Senior Natural Scientist: Paul A. Zahl ForeignEditorialStaff. Luis Marden (Chief); Thomas J. Abercrombie, Howard La Fay, Helen and Frank Schreider, Volkmar Wentzel, Peter T. White Editorial Staf: Thomas Y. Canby, Louis de la Haba, William S. Ellis, Alice J. Hall, Werner Janney, Elizabeth A. Moize, Sabin Robbins, Ethel A. Starbird, Gordon Young EditorialLayout: Howard E. Paine (Chief); Charles C. Uhl, John M. Lavery Geographic Art: William N. Palmstrom (Chief). Artists: Lisa Biganzoli, Wil liam H. Bond, John W. Others, Robert C. Magis, Robert W. Nicholson, Ned M. Seidler. CartographicArtists: Victor J. Kelley, Snejinka Stefanoff. Re search:Walter Q. Crowe (Supervisor), Virginia L. Baza, George W. Beatty, John D. Garst, Jean B. McConville, Dorothy A. Nicholson, Eugene M. Scheel. Isaac Ortiz (Production). Marie L. Barnes (Administrative Assistant) Editorial Research: Margaret G. Bledsoe (Chief); Ann K. Wendt (Associate Chief), Elisabeth J. Chappell, Ledlie L. Dinsmore, Margery G. Dunn, Jan Holdemess, Levenia Loder, Frances H. Parker, Patricia Rosenborg, Eliza beth C. Wagner Geographic Research: George Crossette (Chief); Newton V. Blakeslee (Assist ant Chief), Leon J. Canova, Lesley B. Lane, John A. Weeks Phototypography:JohnE. McConnell (Chief); Lawrence F. Ludwig (Assistant Chief) Library: Virginia Carter Hills (Librarian); Margery K. Barkdull (Assistant Librarian), Melba Barnes, Vera Cassilly, Louise A. Robinson, Esther Ann Manion (Librarian Emeritus) Administration: Betty T. Sanbore, Administrative Assistant to the Editor; Harriet Carey, Virginia H. Finnegan, Joyce W. McKean, Winifred M. Myers, Shirley Neff(Editorial Assistants); Dorothy M. Corson (Indexes); Rosalie K. Millerd, Jeanne S. Duiker (Files); Evelyn Fox (Transportation); Carolyn F. Clewell (Correspondence) ILLUSTRATIONS STAFF:Illustrations Editor: Herbert S. Wilburn, Jr. Associate IllustrationsEditor: Thomas R. Smith. Art Editor: Andrew Poggenpohl. As sistant IllustrationsEditors: Mary S. Griswold, O. Louis Mazzatenta. Senior Picture Editors: Charlene Murphy, Robert S. Patton. Picture Editors: David L. Arnold, William C. Latham, Michael E. Long,Jon Schneeberger. Research: Paula C. Simmons. Barbara A. Shattuck (Assistant) Artists: Walter A. Weber (Naturalist), Peter V. Bianchi Engravingand Printing: Dee J. Andella (Chief); Raymond B. Benzinger, Wil liam W. Smith, James R. Whitney PHOTOGRAPHIC STAFF:Director of Photography: Robert E. Gilka. Assistant Directors:B. Anthony Stewart, Dean Conger. FilmReview: Albert Moldvay (Chief); Guy W. Starling (Assistant Chief). PictorialResearch:Walter Meay ers Edwards (Chief). Photographers:James P. Blair, Bruce Dale, John E. Fletcher, Otis Imboden, Emory Kristof, Bates Littlehales, George F. Mobley, Robert S. Oakes, Winfield Parks, Joseph J. Scherschel, Robert F. Sisson, James L. Stanfield Photographic Laboratory: Edwin L. Wisherd (Chief); Milton A. Ford, Donald McBain, Claude E. Petrone, Carl M. Shrader RELATED EDUCATIONAL SERVICES OF THE SOCIETY Cartography-Maps, atlases, and globes: Chief Cartographer: Wellman Cham berlin. Associate Chief Cartographer: Athos D. Grazzini. Assistant Chief: William T. Peele. Base Compilation: Charles L. Stem (Supervisor), James W. Killion. Name Compilation: Donald A. Jaeger (Supervisor), Manuela G. Kogutowicz, George E. Stuart. Map Drawings: Douglas A. Strobel (Super visor), Robert W. Northrop, Thomas A. Wall. Map Editing: Ted Dachtera (Supervisor), Russel G. Fritz, Richard K. Rogers, Thomas A. Walsh. Projec tions: David W. Cook. Layout and Design: John F. Dorr, Harry C. Siddeley. Revisions: Richard J. Darley. AdministrativeAssistant: Catherine M. Hart Books: Merle Severy (Chief); Seymour L. Fishbein (Assistant Chief), Thom as B. Allen, Ross Bennett, Charles 0. Hyman, Anne Dirkes Kobor, John J. Putman, David F. Robinson, Werner L. Weber Secial Publications: Robert . Breeden (Chief); Donald J. Crump (Assistant Chief), Josephine B. Bolt, David R. Bridge, Johanna G. Farren, Ronald M. Fisher, Mary Ann Harrell, Bryan Hodgson, Geraldine Linder, Philip B. Silcott, Joseph A. Taney School Service: Ralph Gray (Chief, and Editor of National Geographic School Bulletin); Arthur P. Miller, Jr. (Assistant Chief, and Associate Editor of School Bulletin), Richard M. Crum, Jeanne A. Davis, Joseph B. Goodwin, Phyllis Greene, Charles H. Sloan, Janis Knudsen Wheat. EducationalFilm strips: David S. Boyer (Chief); Manuel L. Lopez News Service: Windsor P. Booth (Chief); Paul Sampson (Assistant Chief), Edward Cornish, Donald J. Frederick; Isabel Clarke (Assistant) Television: Robert C. Doyle (Chief); David Cooper, Patricia F. Northrop (Administrative Assistant) Lectures: Joanne M. Hess (Chief); Robert G. Fleegal, Mary W. McKinney, Gerald L. Wiley Explorers Hall: T. Keilor Bentley (Curator-Director) EUROPEANOFFICES:W. Edward Roscher (Associate Secretary and Director), 11 Stanhope Gate, Mayfair, London, W. 1, England; Jacques Ostier, 6 rue des Petits-Peres, 75-Paris 2e, France ADVERTISING: Director: William A. Boeger, Jr.; Executive DirectorofAdver tising Relations: Harley L. McDevitt, 630 Fifth Ave., New York, N.Y . 10020. Regional managers-Eastern:Joseph T. Feeney, New York. Midwestern: William Turgeon, Chicago. Los Angeles: Jack V. Sheehan. San Francisco: Thomas Martz. Automotive: John F. Grant, New York. Travel: Gerald A. Van Splinter, New York. International:James L. Till, New York. European: Richard V. Macy, Paris COPYRIGHT© 1969 NATIONALGEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY,17THAND MSTS. N.W., WASHINGTON, D.C. 20036. ALLRIGHTSRESERVED.REPRODUCTION OR USE OFTHEWHOLEORANYPARTOF THE CONTENTSWITHOUTWRITTENPERMISSIONIS PROHIBITED.PRINTEDIN U.S.A. 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