National Geographic : 1969 Aug
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY WASHINGTON, D. C. Organized "for the increase and diffusion of geographic knowledge" GILBERT HOVEY GROSVENOR C0 Editor, 1899-1954; President, 1920-1954 TED Chairmanof the Board, 1954-1966 THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY is chartered in Washington, D. C ., in accordance with the laws of the United States, as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization for increasing and diffusing geographic knowledge and promoting research and exploration. Since 1890 the Society has supported 511 explorations and research projects, adding immeasurably to man's knowledge of earth, sea, and sky. It diffuses this knowledge through its monthly journal, NA TIONAL GEOGRAPHIC; more than 24 million maps distributed each year; its books, globes, atlases, and filmstrips; 30 School Bulletins a year in color; information serv ices to press, radio, and television; technical reports; exhibits from around the world in Explorers Hall; and a nationwide series of programs on television. Articles and photographs of travel, natural history, and expeditions to far places are desired. For material used, generous remuneration is made. MELVIN M. PAYNE, President FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Vice President and Editor LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Vice President for Research and Exploration ROBERT E. DOYLE, Vice President and Secretary THOMAS M. BEERS, Vice President and Associate Secretary GILBERT M. GROSVENOR, Vice President and Associate Editor HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON, Treasurer OWEN R. ANDERSON, HERMAN J. A. C . ARENS, WILLIAM T. BELL, LEONARD J. GRANT, HERBERT T. HENDERSON, W. EDWARD ROSCHER, C. VERNON SANDERS, Associate Secretaries BOARD OF TRUSTEES MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Chairman of the Board and Editor-in-Chief THOMAS W. McKNEW, Advisory Chairman of the Board LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Former MELVIN M. PAYNE, President, Secretary, Smithsonian Institution National Geographic Society LLOYD H. ELLIOTT, President, LAURANCE S. ROCKEFELLER George Washington University President, Rockefeller Brothers Fund CRAWFORD H. GREENEWALT ROBERT C. SEAMANS, JR. Chairman, Finance Committee, Secretary of the Air Force E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company JUAN T. TRIPPE, Honorary GILBERT M. GROSVENOR Chairman of the Board, Associate Editor, National Geographic Pan American World Airways ARTHUR B. HANSON, General FREDERICK G VOSBURGH Counsel, National Geographic Society Editor, National Geographic CARYL P HASKINS President, JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR., Former CARYL P. HASKINS, President, Assistant Secretary of the Navy Carnegie Institution of Washington EARL WARREN EMORY S. LAND, Vice Admiral, Chief Justice of the United States U. S . Navy.(Ret.), Former President, icf i Air Transport Association JAMES E. WEBB, Former ACTIr . Ts , ptA o Administrator, National Aeronautics CURTIS E. LEMAY, Former Chief and Space Administration of Staff, U. S. Air Force ALEXANDER WETMORE H. RANDOLPH MADDOX Research Associate, Vice President, American Telephone Smithsonian Institution & Telegraph Company (Ret.) LLOYD B. WILSON (Emeritus) WM. McCHESNEY MARTIN, JR. Honorary Board Chairman, Chairman, Board of Governors, Chesapeake & Potomac Federal Reserve System Telephone Company BENJAMIN M. McKELWAY CONRAD L. WIRTH, Former Editorial Chairman, Washington Star Director, National Park Service LOUIS B. WRIGHT, Former Director, Folger Shakespeare Library COMMITTEE FOR RESEARCH AND EXPLORATION LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Chairman ALEXANDER WETMORE and MELVIN M. PAYNE, Vice Chairmen GILBERT M. GROSVENOR, MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, CARYL P. HASKINS, EMORY S. LAND, THOMAS W. McKNEW, T. DALE STEWART, Senior Scientist, Office of Anthropology, Smithsonian Insti tution, MATTHEW W. STIRLING, Research Associate, Smithsonian Institu tion, JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR., CONRAD L. WIRTH, FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, and PAUL A. ZAHL; BARRY C. BISHOP, Secretary on leave; EDWIN W. SNIDER, Secretary Assistant Secretaries of the Society: CHARLES P. BIXEL, FRANK S. DELK, JOHN GOEDEL, JOSEPH B. HOGAN, RAYMOND T. McELLIGOTT, JR., EDWIN W. SNIDER Assistant Treasurer: WILLIAM H. HAMILTON Leonard J. Grant, Editorial Assistant to the President; Edwin W. Snider, Richard E. Pearson, Administrative Assistants to the President; Judith N. Dixon, Ad ministrative Assistant to the Chairman and Editor-in-Chief; Lenore W. Kessler, Administrative Assistant to the Advisory Chairman of the Board SECRETARY'SSTAFF:Administrative: Earl Corliss, Jr.,,Ward S. Phelps. Account ing: Jay H. Givans, George F. Fogle, Alfred J. Hayre, William G. McGhee, Martha Allen Baggett. Statistics: Everett C. Brown, Thomas M. Kent. Retire ment: Mary L. Whitmore (Assistant Supervisor). Payroll: Dorothy L. Dameron (Assistant Supervisor). Procurement: J. P. M. Johnston, Robert G. Corey, Robert C. Ellis, Jr., Sheila H. Immel, Margaret A. Shearer. MembershipResearch: Charles T. Kneeland. Membership Fulfillment: Roy J. Klockenbrink. Member Relations: Paul F. Moize. Computer Center: John Goedel. Secretary's Files: Mozelle L. Downs. Promotion:Stan Jennings, E. M. Pusey, Jr., Robert J. Warfel. Printing:Joe M. Barlett, Frank S. Oliverio. Production Control: James P. Kelly. Personnel:James B. Mahon, Adrian L. Loftin, Jr., Glenn G. Pepperman, Nellie E. Sinclair. Medical: Thomas L. Hartman, M. D. Translation:Zbigniew Jan Lutyk COVER: Snow-laced peaks towering above Maroon Lake awe a couple angling for trout in Colorado's mountain crowned vacationland (page 157). KODACHROMEBY C. DAVIDHISER © N.G .S . NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Editor-in-Chief and Board Chairman MELVIN M. PAYNE President of the Society FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Editor GILBERT M. GROSVENOR, FRANC SHOR, Associate Editors Senior Assistant Editors Allan C. Fisher, Jr., Kenneth MacLeish, John Scofield Assistant Editors: Andrew H. Brown, James Cerruti, Robert L. Conly, W. E. Garrett, Edward J. Linehan, Carolyn Bennett Patterson, Howell Walker, Kenneth F. Weaver SeniorEditorial Staff: Lonnelle Aikman, Jules B: Billard, Rowe Findley, Wil liam Graves, Jay Johnston, Stuart E. Jones, Robert P. Jordan, Joseph Judge, Nathaniel T. Kenney, Samuel W. Matthews, Bart McDowell; Senior Natural Scientist: Paul A. Zahl Foreign Editorial Staff: Luis Marden (Chief); Thomas J. Abercrombie, Howard La Fay, Helen and Frank Schreider, Volkmar Wentzel, Peter T. White Editorial Staff: Harvey Arden, Thomas Y. Canby, Louis de la Haba, William S. Ellis, Alice J. Hall, Werner Janney, Elizabeth A. Moize, Ethel A. Starbird, Gordon Young EditorialLayout: Howard E. Paine (Chief); Charles C. Uhl, John M. Lavery Geographic Art: William N. Palmstrom (Chief). Artists: Lisa Biganzoli, Wil liam H. Bond, John W. Lothers, Robert C. Magis, Robert W. Nicholson, Ned M. Seidler. CartographicArtists: Victor J. Kelley, Snejinka Stefanoff. Re search: Walter Q. Crowe (Supervisor), Virginia L. Baza, George W. Beatty, John D. Garst, Jean B. McConville, Dorothy A. Nicholson, Eugene M. Scheel. Isaac Ortiz (Production). Marie L. Barnes (Administrative Assistant) Editorial Research: Margaret G. Bledsoe (Chief); Ann K. Wendt (Associate Chief), Margery G. Dunn, Jan Holderness, Levenia Loder, Frances H. Parker, Patricia Rosenborg, Elizabeth C. Wagner Geographic Research: George Crossette (Chief); Newton V. Blakeslee (Assist ant Chief), Leon J. Canova, Lesley B. Lane, John A. Weeks Phototypography:John E. McConnell (Chief); Lawrence F. Ludwig (Assistant Chief) Library: Virginia Carter Hills (Librarian); Margery K. Barkdull (Assistant Librarian), Melba Barnes, Vera Cassilly, Louise A. Robinson, Esther Ann Manion (Librarian Emeritus) Administration: Betty T. Sanborne, Administrative Assistant to the Editor; Harriet Carey, Virginia H. Finnegan, Joyce W. McKean, Winifred M. Myers, Shirley Neff, Inez D. Wilkinson (Editorial Assistants); Dorothy M. Corson (Indexes); Rosalie K. Millerd, Jeanne S. Duiker, Lorine Wendling (Files); Evelyn Fox (Transportation); Carolyn F. Clewell (Correspondence) ILLUSTRATIONS STAFF:Illustrations Editor: Herbert S. Wilburn, Jr. Associate Illustrations Editor: Thomas R. Smith. Art Editor: Andrew Poggenpohl. As sistant IllustrationsEditors: Mary S. Griswold, O. Louis Mazzatenta. Senior Picture Editors:Charlene Murphy, Robert S. Patton. Picture Editors: David L. Arnold, William C. Latham, Michael E. Long, Jon Schneeberger. Research: Paula C. Simmons. Barbara A. Shattuck (Asst.) . Librarian:L. Fern Dame Artists: Walter A. Weber (Naturalist), Peter V. Bianchi Engraving andPrinting:Dee J. Andella (Chief); Raymond B. Benzinger; Wil liam W. Smith, James R. Whitney PHOTOGRAPHIC STAFF:Director of Photography: Robert E. Gilka. Assistant Directors:B. Anthony Stewart, Dean Conger. Film Review: Albert Moldvay (Chief); Guy W. Starling (Assistant Chief). PictorialResearch:Walter Meay ers Edwards (Chief). Photographers:James P. Blair, Bruce Dale, John E. Fletcher, Otis Imboden, Emory Kristof, Bates Littlehales, George F. Mobley, Robert S. Oakes, Winfield Parks, Joseph J. Scherschel, Robert F. Sisson, James L. Stanfield PhotographicLaboratory:Edwin L. Wisherd (Chief); Milton A. Ford, Donald McBain, Claude E. Petrone, Carl M. Shrader RELATED EDUCATIONAL SERVICES OF THE SOCIETY Cartography-Maps,atlases, and globes: Chief Cartographer:Wellman Cham berlin. Associate Chief Cartographer:Athos D. Grazzini. Assistant Chief: William T. Peele. Base Compilation: Charles L. Stern (Supervisor), Charles F. Case, James W. Killion. Name Compilation:Donald A. Jaeger (Supervisor), Charles W. Gotthardt, Jr., Manuela G. Kogutowicz, David L. 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Goodwin, Phyllis Greene, Charles H. Sloan, Janis Knudsen Wheat. EducationalFilm strips: David S. Boyer (Chief); Ledlie L. Dinsmore, Margaret McKelway Johnson, Manuel L. Lopez News Service: Windsor P. Booth (Chief); Paul Sampson (Assistant Chief), Donald J. Frederick, Jerry Kline; Isabel Clarke (Assistant) Television: Robert C. Doyle (Chief); David Cooper, Patricia F. Northrop (Administrative Assistant) Lectures: Joanne M. Hess (Chief); Robert G. Fleegal, Mary W. McKinney, Gerald L. Wiley Explorers Hall: T. Keilor Bentley (Curator-Director) EUROPEANOFFICES:W. Edward Roscher (Associate Secretary and Director), 11 Stanhope Gate, Mayfair, London, W. 1, England; Jacques Ostier, 6 rue des Petits-Peres, 75-Paris 2e, France ADVERTISING:Director:William A. Boeger, Jr.; Executive Director ofAdver tising Relations: Harley L. McDevitt, 630 Fifth Ave., New York, N.Y . 10020. Regional managers-Eastern:Joseph T. Feeney, New York. Midwestern: William Turgeon, Chicago. Los Angeles: Jack V. Sheehan. San Francisco: Thomas Martz. Automotive: John F. Grant, New York. Travel: Gerald A. Van Splinter, New York. International:James L. Till, New York. European: Richard V. Macy, Paris COPYRIGHT© 1969 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHICSOCIETY,17TH ANDM STS. N.W ., WASHINGTON, D. C. 20036. ALL RIGHTSRESERVED.REPRODUCTIONOF THE WHOLEOR ANYPARTOF THE CONTENTSWITHOUTWRITTENPERMISSIONIS PROHIBITED.PRINTEDIN U.S .A. SECOND-CLASS POSTAGEPAIDATWASHINGTON,D. C ., ANDADDITIONALMAILINGOFFICES.COVERDESIGNAND TITLEPROTECTEDBYU. S. ANDFOREIGNTRADEMARK REGISTRATIONS. $9 A YEAR,$1A COPY.