National Geographic : 1969 Oct
New world of commerce spawned the moneylender, here portrayed in 1514 by Flemish art ist Quentin Massys. As goods from the Orient flowed to Eu rope, merchants thrived, trades men built great guildhalls, and the middle class emerged. Grotesque mask in Marksburg Castle, Germany, was used for torture. Jailers often heated such devices until they glowed before clamping them on traitors' faces. PAINTINGIN THE LOUVRE,PHOTOGRAPHFROMGIRAUDON Majestic Chartres Cathedral soars in silhouette as the sun sinks over the French countryside. Of the Middle Ages, French novelist Victor Hugo wrote: "... whoever was born a poet became an architect.... mankind has thought of nothing important that it has not written in stone." 546 wnnACHRnMF RYnAVln F rIlPP ARnVF- ANI IONATHANq RIAIR (C) NG.S.