National Geographic : 1969 Oct
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY WASHINGTON, D. C. -. i ".N :jx 9. . Organized "for the increase and diffusion of geographic knowledge" GILBERT HOVEY GROSVENOR Editor, 1899-1954; President, 1920-1954 A.Sa Chairmanof the Board, 1954-1966 THE NATIONALGEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY is chartered in Washington, D. C., in accordance with the laws of the United States, as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization for increasing and diffusing geographic knowledge and promoting research and exploration. Since 1890 the Society has supported 532 explorations and research projects, adding immeasurably to man's knowledge of earth, sea, and sky. It diffuses this knowledge through its monthly journal, NA TIONAL GEOGR(APHIC; more than 24 million maps distributed each year; its books, globes, atlases, and filmstrips; 30 School Bulletins a year in color; information serv ices to press, radio, and television; technical reports; exhibits from around the world in Explorers Hall; and a nationwide series of programs on television. Articles and photographs of travel, natural history, and expeditions to far places are desired. For material used, generous remuneration is made. MEIVIN M. PAYNE, President FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Vice President and Editor LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Vice President for Research and Exploration ROBERT E. IOYIE, Vice President and Secretary THOMAS M. BEERS. Vice President and Associate Secretary GILBERT M. GROSVENOR, Vice President and Associate Editor HII.I.EARY F. HOSKINSON, Treasurer OWEN R. ANDERSON, HERMAN J. A . C . ARENS, WILLIAM T. BELL, LEONARD J. GRANT, HERBERT T. HENDERSON, W. EDWARD ROSCHER. C. VERNON SANDERS, Associate Secretaries BOARD OF TRUSTEES MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Chairman of the Board and Editor-in-Chief THOMAS W. McKNEW, Advisory Chairman of the Board LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Former Secretary, Smithsonian Institution LLOYD H. ELLIOTT, President, George Washington University CRAWFORD H. GREENEWALT Chairman, Finance Committee, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company GILBERT M. GROSVENOR Associate Editor, National Geographic ARTHUR B. HANSON, General Counsel, National Geographic Society CARYL P. HASKINS, President, Carnegie Institution of Washington EMORY S. LAND, Vice Admiral, U. S. Navy (Ret.), Former President, Air Transport Association CURTIS E. LEMAY, Former Chief of Staff, U. S. Air Force H. RANDOLPH MADDOX Vice President, American Telephone & Telegraph Company (Ret.) WM. McCHESNEY MARTIN, JR. Chairman, Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System BENJAMIN M. McKELWAY Editorial Chairman, Washington Star MELVIN M. PAYNE, President, National Geographic Society LAURANCE S. ROCKEFELLER President, Rockefeller Brothers Fund ROBERT C. SEAMANS, JR. Secretary of the Air Force JUAN T. TRIPPE, Honorary Chairman of the Board, Pan American World Airways FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH Editor, National Geographic JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR., Former Assistant Secretary of the Navy EARL WARREN. Former Chief Justice of the United States JAMES E. WEBB, Former Administrator, National Aeronautics and Space Administration ALEXANDER WETMORE Research Associate, Smithsonian Institution LLOYD B. WILSON (Emeritus) Honorary Board Chairman, Chesapeake & Potomac Telephone Company CONRAD L. WIRTH, Former Director, National Park Service I.OUIS B. WRIGHT, Former Director, Folger Shakespeare Library COMMITTEE FOR RESEARCH AND EXPLORATION LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Chairman ALEXANDER WETMORE and MELVIN M. PAYNE, Vice Chairmen GILBERT M. GROSVENOR, MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, CARYL P. HASKINS, EMORY S. LAND, THOMAS W. McKNEW, T. DALE STEWART, Senior Scientist, Office of Anthropology, Smithsonian Insti tution, MATTHEW W. STIRLING, Research Associate, Smithsonian Institu tion, JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR., CONRAD L. WIRTH, FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, and PAUL A. ZAHL; BARRY C. BISHOP, Secretary on leave; EDWIN W. SNIDER, Secretary Assistant Secretaries of the Society: CHARLES P. BIXEL, FRANK S. DELK, JOHN GOEDEL, JOSEPH B. HOGAN, RAYMOND T. McELLIGOTT, JR., EDWIN W. SNIDER Assistant Treasurer: WILLIAM H. HAMILTON Leonard J. Grant, Editorial Assistant to the President; Edwin W. Snider, Richard E. Pearson, Administrative Assistants to the President; Judith N. Dixon, Ad ministrative Assistant to the Chairman and Editor-in-Chief; Lenore W. Kessler, Administrative Assistant to the Advisory Chairman of the Board SECRETARY'SSTAFF:Administrative: Earl Corliss, Jr., Ward S. Phelps. Account ing: Jay H. Givans, George F. Fogle, Alfred J. Hayre, William G. McGhee, Martha Allen Baggett. Statistics: Everett C. Brown, Thomas M. Kent. Retire ment: Mary L. Whitmore (Assistant Supervisor). Payroll: Dorothy L. Dameron (Assistant Supervisor). Procurement: J. P . M. Johnston, Robert G. Corey, Robert C. Ellis, Jr., Sheila H. Immel, Margaret A. Shearer. Membership Research: Charles T. Kneeland. Membership Fulfillment: Roy J. Klockenbrink. Member .Relations: Paul F. Moize. Computer Center: John Goedel. Secretary's Files: Mozelle L. Downs. Promotion: Stan Jennings, E. M. Pusey, Jr., RobertJ. Warfel. Printing:Joe M. Barlett, Frank S. Oliverio. Production Control: James P. Kelly. Personnel: James B. Mahon. Adrian L. Loftin, Jr., Glenn G. Pepperman, Nellie E. Sinclair. Medical: Thomas L. Hartman, M. D. Translation: Zbigniew Jan Lutyk 4 COVER: Angry black eagle dives at author Jeanne Cow den, who studied and photographed a family of the great birds in South Africa's Drakensberg Range (page 532). KODACHROMEBY ARTHURBOWLAND@ N.G.S. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Editor-in-Chief and Board Chairman MELVIN M. PAYNE President of the Society FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Editor GILBERT M. GROSVENOR, FRANC SHOR, Associate Editors Senior Assistant Editors Allan C. Fisher, Jr., Kenneth MacLeish, John Scofield Assistant Editors: Andrew H. Brown, James Cerruti, Robert L. Conly, W. E. Garrett, Edward J. Linehan, Carolyn Bennett Patterson, Howell Walker, Kenneth F. Weaver Senior EditorialStaf: Lonnelle Aikman, Jules B. Billard, Rowe Findley, Wil liam Graves, Jay Johnston, Stuart E. Jones, Robert P. Jordan, Joseph Judge, Nathaniel T. Kenney, Samuel W. Matthews, Bart McDowell; Senior Natural Scientist: Paul A. Zahl ForeignEditorialStaff: Luis Marden (Chief); ThomasJ. Abercrombie, Howard La Fay, Helen and Frank Schreider, Volkmar Wentzel, Peter T. White EditorialStaff: Harvey Arden, Thomas Y. Canby, Louis de la Haba, William S. Ellis, Alice J. Hall, Werner Janney, Elizabeth A. Moize, Ethel A. Starbird, Gordon Young Editorial Layout: Howard E. Paine (Chief); Charles C. Uhl, John M. Lavery Geographic Art: William N. Palmstrom (Chief). Artists: Lisa Biganzoli, Wil liam H. Bond, John W. Lothers, Robert C. Magis, Robert W. Nicholson, Ned M. Seidler. CartographicArtists: Victor J. Kelley, Snejinka Stefanoff. Re search:Walter Q. Crowe (Supervisor), Virginia L. Baza, George W. Beatty, John D. Garst, Jean B. McConville, Dorothy A. Nicholson, Eugene M. Scheel. Isaac Ortiz (Production). Marie L. Barnes (Administrative Assistant) EditorialResearch: Margaret G. Bledsoe (Chief); Ann K. Wendt (Associate Chief), Jan Holderness, Levenia Loder, Frances H. Parker, Patricia Rosen borg, Elizabeth C. Wagner GeographicResearch: George Crossette (Chief); Newton V. Blakeslee (Assist ant Chief), Leon J. Canova, Lesley B. Lane, John A. Weeks Phototypography:John E. McConnell (Chief); Lawrence F. Ludwig (Assistant Chief) Library: Virginia Carter Hills (Librarian); Margery K. Barkdull (Assistant Librarian), Melba Barnes, Vera Cassilly, Louise A. Robinson, Esther Ann Manion (Librarian Emeritus) Administration: Betty T. Sanborne, Administrative Assistant to the Editor; Harriet Carey, Virginia H. Finnegan, Joyce W. McKean, Winifred M. Myers, Shirley Neff, Inez D. Wilkinson (Editorial Assistants); Dorothy M. Corson (Indexes); Rosalie K. Millerd, Jeanne S. Duiker, Lorine Wendling (Files); Evelyn Fox (Transportation); Carolyn F. Clewell (Correspondence) ILLUSTRATIONS STAFF:Illustrations Editor: Herbert S. Wilburn, Jr. Associate Illustrations Editor: Thomas R. Smith. Art Editor: Andrew Poggenpohl. As sistant IllustrationsEditors:Mary S. Griswold, O. Louis Mazzatenta. Layout and Production: H. Edward Kim (Chief). Senior Picture Editors: Charlene Murphy, Robert S. Patton. Picture Editors: David L. Arnold, William C. Latham, Michael E. Long, Jon Schneeberger. Research: Paula C. Simmons. Barbara A. Shattuck (Asst.) . Librarian: L. Fern Dame Artists: Walter A. Weber (Naturalist), Peter V. Bianchi Engraving and Printing: Dee J. Andella (Chief); Raymond B. Benzinger, Wil liam W. Smith, James R. Whitney PHOTOGRAPHIC STAFF:Director of Photography: Robert E. Gilka. Assistant Directors: B. Anthony Stewart, Dean Conger. Film Review: Albert Moldvay (Chief); Guy W. Starling (Assistant Chief). PictorialResearch:Walter Meay ers Edwards (Chief). Photographers:James P. Blair, Bruce Dale, John E. Fletcher, Otis Imboden, Emory Kristof, Bates Littlehales, George F. Mobley, Robert S. Oakes, Winfield Parks, Joseph J. Scherschel, Robert F. Sisson, James L. Stanfield. Lilian Davidson (Administrative Assistant) PhotographicLaboratory:Edwin L. Wisherd (Chief); Milton A. Ford, Donald McBain, Claude E. Petrone, Carl M. Shrader RELATED EDUCATIONAL SERVICES OF THE SOCIETY Cartography-Maps, atlases, and globes: Chief Cartographer: Wellman Cham berlin. Associate Chief Cartographer:Athos D. Grazzini. Assistant Chief: William T. Peele. Base Compilation: Charles L. Stern (Supervisor), Charles F. Case, James W. Killion. Name Compilation:Donald A. Jaeger (Supervisor), Charles W. Gotthardt, Jr., Manuela G. Kogutowicz, David L. Moore, George E. Stuart. Map Drawings: Douglas A. Strobel (Supervisor), Robert W. Nor throp, Thomas A. Wall. Map Editing: Ted Dachtera (Supervisor), Russel G. Fritz, Richard K. Rogers, Thomas A. Walsh. Projections: David W. Cook. Layout and Design: John F. Dorr, Harry C. Siddeley. Revisions: Richard J. Darley. Administrative Assistant: Catherine M. Hart Books: Merle Severy (Chief); Seymour L. Fishbein (Assistant Chief), Thom as B. Allen, Ross Bennett, Charles O. Hyman, Anne Dirkes Kobor, John J. Putman, David F. Robinson, Werner L. Weber Special Publications: Robert L. Breeden (Chief); Donald J. Crump (Assistant Chief), Josephine B. Bolt, David R. Bridge, Margery G. Dunn, Johanna G. Farren, Ronald M. Fisher, Mary Ann Harrell, Bryan Hodgson, Geraldine Linder, Philip B. Silcott, Joseph A. Taney School Service: Ralph Gray (Chief, and Editor of National Geographic School Bulletin); Arthur P. Miller,Jr. (Assistant Chief, and Associate Editor of School Bulletin), Jeanne A. Davis, Joseph B. Goodwin, Phyllis Greene, Charles H. Sloan, Janis Knudsen Wheat. EducationalFilmstrips:David S. Boyer (Chief); Ledlie L. Dinsmore, Margaret McKelway Johnson, Manuel L. Lopez News Service: Windsor P. Booth (Chief); Paul Sampson (Assistant Chief), Donald J. Frederick, Jerry Kline; Isabel Clarke (Assistant) Television: Robert C. Doyle (Chief); David Cooper, Carl W. Harmon, Jr., Sidney Platt, Patricia F. Northrop (Administrative Assistant) Lectures: Joanne M. Hess (Chief); Robert G. Fleegal, Mary W. McKinney, Gerald L. Wiley Explorers Hall: T. Keilor Bentley (Curator-Director) EUROPEANOFFICES:W. Edward Roscher (Associate Secretary and Director), 11 Stanhope Gate, Mayfair, London, W. 1, England; Jacques Ostier, 6 rue des Petits-Peres, 75-Paris 2e, France ADVERTISING:Director:William A. Boeger, Jr.; National Advertising Man ager: William Turgeon; Executive Director ofAdvertising Relations: Harley L. McDevitt, 630 Fifth Ave., New York, N.Y. 10020. Regionalmanagers Eastern:Joseph T. Feeney, New York. Midwestern: Robert R. Henn, Chica go. Los Angeles: Jack V. Sheehan. San Francisco:Thomas Martz. Automo tive: John F. Grant, New York. Travel: Gerald A. Van Splinter, New York. International:James L. Till, New York. European: Richard V. Macy, Paris COPYRIGHT© 1969 NATIONALGEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY,17THANDM STS. N.W .. WASHINGTON, D.C. 20036. ALL RIGHTSRESERVED.REPRODUCTION OF THEWHOLEOR ANYPARTOF THE CONTENTSWITHOUTWRITTENPERMISSIONIS PROHIBITED.PRINTEDIN U.S.A. SECOND-CLASS POSTAGEPAIDATWASHINGTON, D.C., ANDADDITIONAL MAILINGOFFICES.COVERDESIGNAND TITLEPROTECTED BYU. S. ANDFOREIGNTRADEMARK REGISTRATIONS. $9 A YEAR,$1 A COPY.