National Geographic : 1969 Dec
and the ground ran blood.... So the grim encounter... veered greatly now one way, now in another, over the plain...." On his way to Athens and Salamis, Xerxes passed here, punishing the stormy waters with 300 lashes, then binding 674 ships together with cables, beams, brushwood, and earth. Thus he made twin bridges of ships. It took seven days and seven nights for the army to cross. Yankee passed this site, ancient Abydos; the setting was beautiful. Fields sloped to the sea; villages tilted on hills, each settlement skew ered to the landscape by a sharp minaret. Old wars seemed far away. "But we have to trace the Gallipoli campaign," Mel insisted. As a midshipman at Annapolis, he had studied the Allied effort to break through the Dardanelles in World War I. Between April 1915 and Jan uary 1916, the fighting cost half a million casualties. Gallipoli Guide Himself a Veteran "I know just the guide," said Irving, producing the address of Mr. M. S. Dilmen, a gentleman now in his seventies-and himself a veteran of Gallipoli. We met Mr. Dilmen on the European side of the Darda nelles for an auto tour of the peninsula battlefield. "Yes, I fought here for the first three days," Mr. Dilmen told Mel. "I had been visiting my uncle, a company commander in the 27th Regi ment. We expected no battle; I was 20 and about to be called to the colors. But I fought, and three days later they sent me to reserve officers' train ing camp. So I am alive today. My uncle and his regiment met death." We walked along the shores where troops of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps landed on Anzac beach. Miscalculation of strong currents in predawn darkness caused the British Navy to miss the intended landing site by about a mile. This crucial error placed the troops beneath a steep cliff (preceding pages). "They came ashore over there early on April 25," Mr. Dilmen told us. "By 8 a.m. the Australians were moving up this height-and then came Not tumbled ruins, but the solid stuff of cities in the making, rectangular sections of marble (right)await trans port from the island of Mar mara. Red-hatted Captain Johnson looks to the foot of quarry walls, where Edwin Grosvenor focuses his lens on two workmen splitting an unpolished block with a pneumatic drill. The result of the young photographer's effort appears at left. For more than two thou sand years gleaming white slabs from these quarries have added luster to the cities of Europe and Asia. The name Marmara derives from the Greek word mar maros, which came to mean "shining stone." The sur rounding Sea of Marmara, called Propontis by the an cients, took its modern name from the island. 836 KODACHROME(AMELVILLEBELLGOSUAENOR tV© N.GV KODACHROMEBY MELVILLEBELL GROSVENOR( N.G.S.