National Geographic : 1962 Jul
esthetic effects were achieved. Elijah's house, viewed from the end, shows chimney, roof, and end walls in perfect symmetry. Water power was harnessed for sawmills and gristmills. First came the sash saw, called "slash" saw, then the circular saw. The sash saw went up and down, cutting on the down stroke. Floor boards of some buildings in the Cove still show sash saw marks. The early gristmills were "tub" mills. The wheel-a cross section of a big poplar tree lay flat. Cup-shaped slots were cut in the wood; the water hit the slots at an angle. The shaft stood erect, the grinding stones being above the wheel. Later mills used the overshot wheel, which turned in a vertical plane. John P. Cable built a mill run by an over shot wheel in 1868. Restored, it still func tions. As a demonstration of pioneer industry for visitors, the Great Smoky Mountains Nat ural History Association grinds some 15 tons of corn each summer. These days the wheel grinds slowly. But if the millrace were al lowed to run full, the Cable Mill could grind a bushel of corn about every ten minutes. "Olivers never had a mill," John W. Oliver told me. "There were plenty without ourn. Four operated at one time: Cable, Burchfield, Shields. Cain't recall the fourth." Each notch had a slight flange on the end. "They'll stay put so long as there's a log there." John P. Cable built a mill run by an over shot wheel in 1868. These days the wheel grinds slowly. Horseshoe hinges: The old settlers improvised.