National Geographic : 1963 Jul
Riding a jet of water, a log drops onto a storage pile at the Ontario-Minnesota Pulp and Paper Company, Ltd., Kenora. Conveyer at center carries peeled logs into the mill from mountains of spruce. Twenty-five-ton grinders chew them to pulp. A mixture of ground and chemically treated fibers rolls through drying presses to emerge as newsprint. ONTARIO SECOND LARGEST of Canada's ten prov inces (after Quebec), Ontario links polar bears, peaches, and people. It ranges from subarctic wilderness to fruitful farmland. Its name, in Iroquois, means "beautiful waters." AREA: 412,583 square miles. POPULATION: 6,400,000. MAJOR CITIES: Toronto, capital (met. pop. 1,824,481); Ottawa (met. pop. 429,750), national capital; Hamil ton (met. pop. 395,189), steel and lake shipping; Windsor, automobiles, rail and air center; London, center of rich agricultural area. ECONOMY: Chiefly industrial (hydroelectric pow er, motor vehicles, pulp, paper, lumber, meat packing, metal and petroleum refining). Agricul tural produce includes dairy products, livestock, fruit, tobacco. Rich ore deposits (nickel, uranium, copper, gold, iron ore, platinum, zinc). CLIMATE: Abundant rainfall; summer temper atures reach average high of 80° F. along U. S. border, drop to about 10° F. average low in win ter. FLORAL EMBLEM: White trillium. by which ocean-going vessels and lakers ne gotiate the drop between Lakes Superior and Huron (pages 94-5). The Whitefish Bay, twen ty times as long as a Montreal canoe, made the 22-foot descent in 20 minutes. The Soo Locks, Canadian and American, handle more tons of shipping in a year than does even the Panama Canal. In spring, maintaining the locks poses a challenge as great as did building them. "Ice fields at the lower end of Lake Su perior are among the world's worst," ex plained a lock attendant. "It's not only the ice. Think of all the wa ter of Lake Superior funneling into the St. Marys River. Add to that the ice that breaks up with spring thaws. Then remember the gales that blow on Superior. Current. Ice. Wind. We can manage fine with only current and ice. But when there's a gale-well, it happened last spring. We just got the chan nel cleared, and the ice blocked it. Time and again. Late into the second week in May, ships were still entering the locks at a trickle."