National Geographic : 1963 Dec
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC o SOCIETY " WASHINGTON, D. C. 75TH ANNIVERSARY 1888-1963 Organized "for the increase and \ 1~~ RATED diffusion of geographic knowledge" The National Geographic Society is chartered in Washington, D. C ., in accordance with the laws of the United States, as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization for increasing and diffusing geographic knowledge and promoting research and exploration. Since 1890 the Society has supported more than 200 explorations and re search projects, adding immeasurably to man's knowledge of earth, sea, and sky. It diffuses this knowledge through its journal, NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC; more than 24 million maps distributed each year; its books, globes, and atlases; 30 School Bulletins a year in color; information services to press, radio, and television; and the publication of technical monographs. Articles and photographs of travel, natural history, and expeditions to far places are desired. For material used, generous remuneration is made. MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, President and Editor MELVIN M. PAYNE, Executive Vice President and Secretary ROBERT V. FLEMING, Vice President and Treasurer FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Vice President and Associate Editor ROBERT E. DOYLE, Vice President and Associate Secretary THOMAS M. BEERS, Vice President and Associate Secretary VERNON H. BREWSTER, WM. T. BELL, HERBERT T. HENDERSON, C. VERNON SANDERS, Associate Secretaries ARTHUR B. HANSON, General Counsel COMMITTEE FOR RESEARCH AND EXPLORATION LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Chairman ALEXANDER WETMORE Vice Chairman Rear Adm. L. O . COLBERT HUGH L. DRYDEN A. REMINGTON KELLOGG Research Associate Smithsonian Institution Vice Adm. EMORY S. LAND T. DALE STEWART Director, Museum of Natural History Smithsonian Institution MATTHEW W. STIRLING Research Associate Smithsonian Institution CONRAD L. WIRTH WILLIAM E. WRATHER and the Senior Officers of the Society BOARD OF TRUSTEES GILBERT GROSVENOR, Chairman of the Board, formerly President, National Geographic Society, and Editor of its magazine (1899-1954) THOMAS W. McKNEW, Vice Chairman of the Board, formerly Executive Vice President and Secretary (1932-1962) ROBERT B. ANDERSON Secretary of the Treasury, 1957-61 LEONARD CARMICHAEL Secretary, Smithsonian Institution LEO OTIS COLBERT Rear Admiral, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Retired HUGH L. DRYDEN Deputy Administrator, National Aeronautics & Space Administration ROBERT V. FLEMING Advisory Chairman of the Board and Chairman, Executive Committee, Riggs National Bank CRAWFORD H. GREENEWALT Chairman of the Board, E. I . du Pont de Nemours & Company MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Editor, National Geographic EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired, formerly President Air Transport Association CURTIS E. LEMAY Chief of Staff, U. S. Air Force H. RANDOLPH MADDOX Vice President, American Tele phone & Telegraph Company (Ret.) BENJAMIN M. McKELWAY Editorial Chairman, Washington Star WALTER K. MYERS, M.D . Physician MELVIN M. PAYNE Executive Vice President National Geographic Society LAURANCE S. ROCKEFELLER Chairman of the Board, Rockefeller Brothers, Inc., and President Jackson Hole Preserve JUAN T. TRIPPE President, Pan American World Airways FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH Assoc. Editor, National Geographic JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR. Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research and Development EARL WARREN Chief Justice of the United States ALEXANDER WETMORE Research Associate Smithsonian Institution LLOYD B. WILSON Honorary Board Chairman, Chesa peake & Potomac Telephone Co. CONRAD L. WIRTH Director, National Park Service U. S . Department of the Interior WILLIAM E. WRATHER Director, U. S. Geological Survey, Retired Asst. Secretaries: HERMAN J. A . C. ARENS, CHARLES P. BIXEL, OWEN R. ANDERSON. Asst. Secretary and Asst. Treasurer: HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON. Asst. Treasurer: WM. H . McCAULEY HERMAN J. A . C . ARENS, Executive Assistant, LEONARD J. GRANT Editorial Assistant, and Gail H. Carroll, Secretary to the President and Editor; Sibyl Peck, Assistant to the Chairman of the Board; Lenore W. Kessler, Secretary to the Vice Chairman of the Board 4 COVER: Turkish walled city of Nicaea surrenders to Byzantine soldiers during the First Crusade (page 803). NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, Editor MELVIN M. PAYNE, Executive Vice President FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Associate Editor FRANC SHOR, Senior Assistant Editor EDITORIAL STAFF Assistant Editors: James Cerruti, Robert L. Conly, Allan C. Fisher, Jr., John Scofield, Mason Sutherland Issue Editor: Samuel W. Matthews Senior Staff: Lonnelle Aikman, Jules B. Billard, Andrew H. Brown, Gilbert M. Grosvenor, Nathaniel T. Kenney, Howard La Fay, Edward J. Linehan, Luis Marden, Carolyn Bennett Patterson, Howell Walker, Kenneth F. Weaver, Paul A. Zahl (Natural Sciences) Foreign Staff W. Robert Moore (Chief); Thomas J. Abercrombie, Barry C. Bishop, David S. Boyer, Kip Ross, Volkmar Wentzel Editorial Staff Edward Cornish, Rowe Findley, William P. E. Graves, John R. Hoopes, Werner Janney, Jay Johnston, Stuart E. Jones, Robert P. Jordan, Bart McDowell, Frank Sartwell, Peter T. White; Joanne M. Hess, Winifred M. Myers, Betty T. Sanborne (Assts.); Dorothy M. Corson (Indexes); Rosalie K. Millerd (Files); Arnvid Nygaard (Chief Translator); Mary Webster Parkhurst Editorial Layout: Howard E. Paine (Chief); Charles C. Uhl Book Service: Merle Severy (Chief); Wayne Barrett, Ross Bennett, Seymour L. Fishbein, Mary Swain Hoover, Anne Dirkes Kobor, Patricia Coyle Nicholson, Edwards Park, John J. Putman School Service: Ralph Gray (Chief); Arthur P. Miller, Jr., Lea Ridgley, Charles H. Sloan News Service: Windsor P. Booth (Chief); Louis de la Haba, Matt C. McDade, Sabin Robbins, Jr., Paul G. Sampson; Isabel Clarke (Asst.) Television Service: Robert C. Doyle (Chief) Phototypography: Robert C. Ellis, Jr. Editorial Research: Margaret G. Bledsoe (Chief); Ann K. Wendt (Asst. Chief), Mary Ann Harrell, Levenia Loder, Patricia Middle mas, Patricia Rosenborg GeographicResearch: George Crossette (Chief); Newton V. Blakeslee (Asst. Chief), Leon J. Canova, Virginia A. LeVasseur, Jean B. McConville, Edward C. Schulz Library: Esther Ann Manion (Librarian); Virginia Carter Hills (Asst. Librarian), Vera Cassilly, Katharine P. O'Donnell ILLUSTRATIONS STAFF IllustrationsEditor: Herbert S. Wilburn, Jr. Art Editor: Andrew Poggenpohl Asst. Illust. Editors: Robert L. Breeden, W. E . Garrett, Mary S. Gris wold, Thomas R. Smith, Charles Allmon (Incoming Photographs) Director of Photography: Robert E. Gilka. Asst.. Director: Joseph Baylor Roberts Photographers:B. Anthony Stewart (Chief); James P. Blair, Dean Conger, John E. Fletcher, Otis Imboden, Bates Littlehales, George F. Mobley, Albert Moldvay, Thomas Nebbia, Winfield Parks, Robert F. Sisson Photo Lab: Edwin L. Wisherd (Chief); Richard H. Stewart (Asst. Chief), Milton A. Ford, Donald McBain, Robert S. Oakes, Carl M. Shrader, Guy W. Starling Illustrations Staff: Lee E. Battaglia, Donald J. Crump, Charlene L. Murphy, Robert S. Patton, Arthur A. Terry; Geraldine Linder (Asst.). Librarian:Caro Stillwell PictorialResearch: Walter Meayers Edwards (Chief) Artists: Walter A. Weber (Naturalist), Peter V. Bianchi Engraving & Printing:Dee J. Andella (Chief); Joe M. Barlett, Frank S. Oliverio, William W. Smith CARTOGRAPHIC STAFF Chief Cartographer:James M. Darley Asst. Chief Cartographers:Newman Bumstead, Ralph E. McAleer CartographicEngineer: Wellman Chamberlin. Base Maps: Charles L. Stern (Supervisor); Harry C. Siddeley. Physiography: John J. Brehm, Robert W. Northrop. Oceanography: Apphia E. Holdstock, David W. Cook. Transportation:Douglas A. Strobel (Supervisor). Map Drawings: William T. Peele (Supervisor). Geographic Names: Richard J. Darley (Supervisor); Russel G. Fritz, Donald A. Jaeger, George E. Stuart. Map Editing: Athos D. Grazzini (Supervisor); Carol J. Cunningham, Ted Dachtera, Richard K. Rogers. Admin istrative Assistant: Catherine M. Hart Geographic Art: Newman Bumstead (Chief). Artists: Irvin E. Alleman, Joseph E. Barrett, Gilbert H. Emerson, Victor J. Kelley, John W. Lothers, Robert C. Magis, Robert W. Nicholson, William Palmstrom. Research: George W. Beatty, Eugene M. Scheel SECRETARY'S STAFF Administrative: Edwin W. Snider, Raymond T. McElligott, Jr., Richard E. Pearson. Accounting: F. Charles Brown, George F. Fogle, Martha K. Allen. Cashier: Frank S. Delk. Statistics: Everett C. Brown. Procurement:J. P. M. Johnston. Payroll: Esther M. Lohrer, Marie S. Edwards. Membership Fulfillment: Roy J. Klockenbrink. Promotion: Stan Jennings, E. M. Pusey, Jr., Gordon Young. Accounts Records: Della M. Hurt. Personnel: J. B. Mahon, Mary Louise Cross, Frank A. Holman. Medical: Thomas L. Hartman, M.D. EUROPEAN OFFICE W. E . Roscher (Director) 161-166 Fleet Street, London E.C . 4, England ADVERTISING Director: John F. Connery, New York Advertising Manager: Harley L. McDevitt, New York Chicago: William Turgeon. San Francisco: Donald F. Mikkelsen Los Angeles: Jack V. Sheehan Automotive Manager: William A. Boeger, Jr., New York Copyright ® 19683National GeographicSociety. 16th and M Streets N.W .. Wauhington. D. C. . 20036. All rights reserved. Reproduction or ue of the whole or any part of the contents without written permission is prohibited. Printed in U.S.A. Second class postage paid at Washington. D. C.. and at additional mailing offli. Cover design and title protected by international trademark.