National Geographic : 1964 Jun
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 0 SOCIETY : WASHINGTON, D. C. \ t Organized"for the increase and 1''® diffusion of geographic knowledge" RATE The National Geographic Society is chartered in Washington, D. C., in accordance with the laws of the United States, as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization for increasing and diffusing geographic knowledge and promoting research and exploration. Since 1890 the Society has supported more than 200 explorations and re search projects, adding immeasurably to man's knowledge of earth, sea, and sky. It diffuses this knowledge through its journal, NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC; more than 28 million maps distributed each year; its books, globes, and atlases; 30 School Bulletins a year in color; information services to press, radio, and television; and the publication of technical monographs. Articles and photographs of travel, natural history, and expeditions to far places are desired. For material used, generous remuneration is made. MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, President and Editor MELVIN M. PAYNE, Executive Vice President and Secretary ROBERT V. FLEMING, Vice President and Treasurer FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Vice President and Associate Editor LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Vice President for Research and Exploration ROBERT E. DOYLE, Vice President and Associate Secretary THOMAS M. BEERS, Vice President and Associate Secretary VERNON H. BREWSTER, WM. T. BELL, HERBERT T. HENDERSON, C. VERNON SANDERS, Associate Secretaries ARTHUR B. HANSON, General Counsel COMMITTEE FOR RESEARCH AND EXPLORATION LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Chairman ALEXANDER WETMORE T. DALE STEWART Vice Chairman Director, Museum of Natural MELVIN M. PAYNE History Vice Chairman Smithsonian Institution Rear Adm. L. O. COLBERT MATTHEW W. STIRLING Research Associate HUGH L. DRYDEN Smithsonian Institution A.REMINGTONAs KELLOGG JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR. Smithsonian Institution CONRAD L. WIRTH Vice Adm. EMORY S. LAND PAUL A. ZAHL and the Senior Officers of the Society BARRY C. BISHOP, Secretary BOARD OF TRUSTEES GILBERT GROSVENOR, Chairman of the Board, formerly President, National Geographic Society, and Editor of its magazine (1899-1954) THOMAS W. McKNEW, Vice Chairman of the Board, formerly Executive Vice President and Secretary (1932-1962) LEONARD CARMICHAEL Vice President National Geographic Society THOMAS H. CARROLL President, George Washington University LEO OTIS COLBERT Rear Admiral, U. S . Coast and Geodetic Survey, Retired HUGH L. DRYDEN Deputy Administrator, National Aeronautics & Space Administration ROBERT V. FLEMING Advisory Chairman of the Board and Chairman, Executive Committee, Riggs National Bank CRAWFORD H. GREENEWALT Chairman of the Board, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Editor, National Geographic EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral, U. S . Navy, Retired, formerly President Air Transport Association CURTIS E. LEMAY Chief of Staff, U. S . Air Force H. RANDOLPH MADDOX Vice President, American Tele phone & Telegraph Company (Ret.) BENJAMIN M. McKELWAY Editorial Chairman, Washington Star WALTER K. MYERS, M.D. Physician MELVIN M. PAYNE Executive Vice President National Geographic Society LAURANCE S. ROCKEFELLER Chairman of the Board, Rockefeller Brothers, Inc., and President Jackson Hole Preserve JUAN T. TRIPPE President, Pan American World Airways FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH Assoc. Editor, National Geographic JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR. Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research and Development EARL WARREN Chief Justice of the United States ALEXANDER WETMORE Research Associate Smithsonian Institution LLOYD B. WILSON Honorary Board Chairman, Chesa peake & Potomac Telephone Co. CONRAD L. WIRTH Former Director National Park Service U. S. Department of the Interior Asst. Secretaries: OWEN R. ANDERSON, HERMAN J. A. C . ARENS, CHARLES P. BIXEL; Asst. Secretary and Asst. Treasurer: HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON; Asst. Treasurer: WM. H . McCAULEY HERMAN J. A. C. ARENS, Executive Assistant, LEONARD J. GRANT, Editorial Assistant, and Gail H. Carroll, Secretary to the President and Editor; Sibyl Peck, Assistant to the Chairman of the Board; Lenore W. Kessler, Secretary to the Vice Chairman of the Board 4 COVER: Visitors in Carlsbad Caverns explore an under world of fantastic formations (pages 816-17). NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, Editor MELVIN M. PAYNE, Executive Vice President FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Associate Editor FRANC SHOR, Senior Assistant Editor JAMES M. DARLEY, CartographerEmeritus EDITORIAL STAFF Assistant Editors: Newman Bumstead, James Cerruti, Robert L. Conly, Allan C. Fisher, Jr., Kenneth MacLeish, John Scofield, Mason Sutherland Senior Staff Lonnelle Aikman, Jules B. Billard, Andrew H. Brown, Gilbert M. Grosvenor, Nathaniel T. Kenney, Howard La Pay, Edward J. Linehan, Luis Marden, Samuel W. Matthews, Carolyn Bennett Patterson, Howell Walker, Kenneth F. Weaver, Paul A. Zahl (Natural Sciences) Foreign Staff W. Robert Moore (Chief); Thomas J. Abercrombie, David S. Boyer, Kip Ross, Volkmar Wentzel Issue Editor. Frank Sartwell Editorial Staff: Wayne Barrett, Edward Cornish, Rowe Findley, William P. E. Graves, John R. Hoopes, Werner Janney, Jay Johnston, Stuart E. Jones, Robert P. Jordan, Bart McDowell, Peter T. White; Joanne M. Hess, Winifred M. Myers, Betty T. Sanborne (Assts.); Dorothy M. Corson (Indexes); Rosalie K. Millerd (Files); Arnvid Nygaard (Chief Translator); Mary Webster Parkhurst EditorialLayout: Howard E. Paine (Chief); Charles C. Uhl Book Service: Merle Severy (Chief); Ross Bennett, Seymour L. Fishbein, Mary Swain Hoover, Anne Dirkes Kobor, Patricia Coyle Nicholson, Edwards Park, John J. Putman Geographic Art Newman Bumstead (Chief); William Palmstrom (Asst. Chief). Artists: Irvin E. Alleman, Joseph E. Barrett, Gilbert H. Emerson, VictorJ. Kelley, John W. Lothers, Robert C. Magis, Rob ert W. Nicholson. Research: George W. Beatty, Eugene M. Scheel School Service: Ralph Gray (Chief); Arthur P. Miller, Jr., Lea Ridgley, Charles H. Sloan News Service: Windsor P. Booth (Chief); Louis de la Haba, Matt C. McDade, Sabin Robbins, Paul G. Sampson; Isabel Clarke (Asst.) Television Service: Robert C. Doyle (Chief) Phototypography:Robert C. Ellis, Jr. (Chief); John McConnell (Asst. Chief), Elizabeth L. Donley Editorial Research: Margaret G. Bledsoe (Chief); Ann K. Wendt (Asst. Chief), Mary Ann Harrell, Levenia Loder, Patricia Middle mas, Patricia Rosenborg GeographicResearch: George Crossette (Chief); Newton V. Blakeslee (Asst. Chief), Leon J. Canova, Virginia A. LeVasseur, Jean B. McConville, Edward C. Schulz Library: Esther Ann Manion (Librarian); Virginia Carter Hills (Asst. Librarian), Vera Cassilly, Katharine P. O'Donnell EditorialAdministration: Patricia M. Watkins ILLUSTRATIONS STAFF IllustrationsEditor: Herbert S. Wilburn, Jr. Art Editor: Andrew Poggenpohl Asst. Illust. Editors: Robert L. Breeden, W. E. Garrett, Mary S. Gris wold, Thomas R. Smith, Charles Allmon (Incoming Photographs) Director of Photography: Robert E. Gilka. Asst. Director: Joseph Baylor Roberts Photographers:B. Anthony Stewart (Chief); James P. Blair, Dean Conger, John E. Fletcher, Otis Imboden, Bates Littlehales, George F. Mobley, Albert Moldvay, Thomas Nebbia, Winfield Parks, Robert F. Sisson Picture Editors: Lee E. Battaglia, Donald J. Crump, Charlene L. Murphy, Robert S. Patton, Arthur A. Terry; Geraldine Linder (Asst.) . Librarian:Caro Stillwell Photo Lab. Edwin L. Wisherd (Chief); Richard H. Stewart (Asst. Chief), Milton A. Ford, Donald McBain, Robert S. Oakes, Carl M. Shrader, Guy W. Starling PictorialResearch: Walter Meayers Edwards (Chief) Artists: Walter A. Weber (Naturalist), Peter V. Bianchi Engraving& Printing:Dee J. Andella (Chief); Joe M. Barlett, Frank S. Oliverio, William W. Smith CARTOGRAPHIC STAFF ChiefCartographer:Ralph E. McAleer Asst. Chief Cartographers:Wellman Chamberlin, Athos D. Grazzini Production Manager: William T. Peele. Base Maps and Revisions: Charles L. Stern (Supervisor); John F. Dorr, Harry C. Siddeley Map Drawings: Douglas A. Strobel (Supervisor); John J. Brehm, Robert W. Northrop. Geographic Names: Richard J. Darley (Super visor); Carol J. Cunningham, Donald A. Jaeger, George E. Stuart Oceanography:Apphia E. Holdstock, David W. Cook. Map Editing: Ted Dachtera, Russel G. Fritz, Richard K. Rogers. Administrative Assistant: Catherine M. Hart SECRETARY'S STAFF Administrative: Edwin W. Snider, Raymond T. McElligott, Jr., Richard E. Pearson. Accounting: F. Charles Brown, George F. Fogle, Martha K. Alien. Cashier: Frank S. Delk. Statistics: Everett C. Brown. Procurement:J. P. M. Johnston. Payroll:Marie S. Edwards. Membership Fulfillment: Roy J. Klockenbrink. Promotion: James Heermance, Stan Jennings, E. M. Pusey, Jr., Gordon Young. Ac counts Records: Della M. Hurt. Personnel:J. B . Mahon, Mary Louise Cross, Frank A. Holman. Medical: Thomas L. Hartman, M.D . EUROPEAN OFFICE W. E. Roscher (Director) 11 Stanhope Gate, Mayfair, London, W. 1, England ADVERTISING Director:John F. Connery, New York Advertising Manager:Harley L. McDevitt, New York Chicago: William Turgeon. San Francisco:Donald F. Mikkelsen Los Angeles: Jack V. Sheehan Automotive Manager: William A. Boeger, Jr., New York Copyright © 1964 National Geographic Society, 17th and M Streets. N.W., Washington, D. C. 20036. All rights reserved. Reproduction or use of the whole or any part of the contents without written permission is prohibited. Printed in U.S .A. Second class postage paid at Washington. D. C., and at additional mailing offices. Cover design and title protected by internationaltrademark.