National Geographic : 1964 Nov
the Oregon Territory, obtaining from Spain the cession of the Floridas, and, with the President, formulating the Monroe Doctrine. In the political tradition of the early 19th century, Adams as Secretary of State was thought the political heir to the Presidency. But the old ways of choosing a President were giving way in 1824 before the clamor for a popular choice. Within the one and only party, the Repub licans, sectionalism and factionalism were developing, and each section put up, by a variety of means, its own candidates for the Presidency. Adams, the candidate of the North, fell behind Gen. Andrew Jackson in both popular and electoral votes, but received more votes than William H. Crawford and Henry Clay. Since no candidate had a major ity of the electoral votes, the election was de cided among the top three by the House of Representatives. Clay, who favored a pro gram similar to that of Adams, threw his crucial support in the House to the New Englander. Upon becoming President, Adams appoint ed Clay as Secretary of State. Jackson and his angry followers charged that a corrupt bargain had taken place and immediately 686 PAINTINGBY SIR AMEDEEFORESTIER,SMITHSONIANINSTITUTION © N.G.S. began their campaign to wrest the Presidency from Adams in 1828. Against the angry op position of the Jacksonians, President John Quincy Adams tried to run his administration as though politics did not exist. He not only kept several of his political enemies in the Cabinet, but would even have liked to appoint Jackson as Secretary of War. Well aware that he would face hostility in Congress, he nevertheless proclaimed in his first Annual Message a spectacular national program. He proposed that the Federal Gov ernment bring the sections together with a network of highways and canals, and that it develop and conserve the public domain, using funds from the sale of public lands. In 1828, he turned the first spadeful of the 185 mile C & 0 Canal-now partly restored by the National Park Service.* Adams also urged the United States to take a lead in the devel opment of the arts and sciences through the establishment of a national university, the financing of scientific expeditions, and the erection of an observatory. "The spirit of improvement is abroad upon the earth," he reminded Congress. "While * See "Waterway to Washington," by Jay Johnston, NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC, March, 1960.