National Geographic : 1964 Dec
NATIONAL ' -. , GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY Z < WASHINGTON, D.C. Organized"for the increase and diffusion of geographicknowledge" l The National Geographic Society is chartered in Washington, D. C ., in accordance with the laws of the United States, as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization for increasing and diffusing geographic knowledge and promoting research and exploration. Since 1890 the Society has supported more than 200 explorations and re search projects, adding immeasurably to man's knowledge of earth, sea, and sky. It diffuses this knowledge through its monthly journal, NATIONAL GEO GRAPHIC; more than 28 million maps distributed each year; its books, globes, and atlases; 30 School Bulletins a year in color; information services to press, radio, and television; and the publication of technical monographs. Articles and photographs of travel, natural history, and expeditions to far places are desired. For material used, generous remuneration is made. MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, President and Editor MELVIN M. PAYNE, Executive Vice President and Secretary ROBERT V. FLEMING, Vice President and Treasurer FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Vice President and Associate Editor LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Vice President for Research and Exploration ROBERT E. DOYLE, Vice President and Associate Secretary THOMAS M. BEERS, Vice President and Associate Secretary VERNON H. BREWSTER, WM. T. BELL, HERBERT T. HENDERSON, C. VERNON SANDERS, Associate Secretaries ARTHUR B. HANSON, General Counsel COMMITTEE FOR RESEARCH AND EXPLORATION LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Chairman ALEXANDER WETMORE T. DALE STEWART Vice Chairman Director, Museum of Natural MELVIN M. PAYNE History Vice Chairman Smithsonian Institution Rear Adm. L. 0. COLBERT MATTHEW W. STIRLING SResearch Associate HUGH L. DRYDEN Smithsonian Institution A. REMINGTON KELLOGG JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR. Research ASsociate Smithsonian Institution CONRAD L. WIRTH Vice Adm. EMORY S. LAND PAUL A. ZAHL and the Senior Officers of the Society BARRY C. BISHOP, Secretary BOARD OF TRUSTEES GILBERT GROSVENOR, Chairman of the Board, formerly President, National Geographic Society, and Editor of its magazine (1899-1954) THOMAS W. McKNEW, Vice Chairman of the Board, formerly Executive Vice President and Secretary (1932-1962) LEONARD CARMICHAEL MELVIN M. PAYNE Vice President Executive Vice President National Geographic Society National Geographic Society LEO OTIS COLBERT LAURANCE S. ROCKEFELLER Rear Admiral, U. S. Coast Chairman of the Board, Rockefeller and Geodetic Survey, Retired Brothers, Inc., and President Jackson Hole Preserve HUGH L. DRYDEN JUAN T. TRIPPE Deputy Administrator, National Chairman of the Board Aeronautics & Space Administration Pan American World Airways ROBERT V. FLEMING FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH Advisory Chairman of the Board Assoc. Editor, National Geographic and Chairman, Executive Committee, JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR. Riggs National Bank Former Assistant Secretary of the CRAWFORD H. GREENEWALT Navy for Research and Chairman of the Board, E. I. du Pont Development de Nemours & Company EARL WARREN MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Chief Justice of the United States Editor, National Geographic ALEXANDER WETMORE EMORY S. LAND Research Associate Vice Admiral, U. S . Navy, Smithsonian Institution Retired, formerly President LLOYD B. WILSON Air Transport Association Honorary Board Chairman, Chesa CURTIS E. LEMAY peake & Potomac Telephone Co. Chiefof Staff, U. S. Air Force CONRAD L. WIRTH Chief of Staff, U. S. Air Force Former Director H. RANDOLPH MADDOX National Park Service Vice President, American Tele- U. S. Department of the Interior phone& Telegraph Company (Ret.) LOUIS B. WRIGHT BENJAMIN M. McKELWAY Director, Folger Shakespeare Editorial Chairman, Washington Star Library Asst. Secretaries: OWEN R. ANDERSON, HERMAN J. A . C . ARENS, CHARLES P. BIXEL; Asst. Secretary and Asst. Treasurer: HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON; Asst. Treasurer: WM. H . McCAULEY HERMAN J. A. C. ARENS, Executive Assistant, LEONARD J. GRANT, Editorial Assistant, and Gail H. Carroll, Secretary to the President and Editor; Sibyl Peck, Assistant to the Chairman of the Board; Lenore W. Kessler, Secretary to the Vice Chairman of the Board SCOVER: "A pair of turtledoves" (Luke 2: 24) beside the Tomb of Jesus symbolizes divided Jerusalem's hope for peace (page 826). NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, Editor MELVIN M. PAYNE, Executive Vice President FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Associate Editor FRANC SHOR, Associate Editor JAMES M. DARLEY, CartographerEmeritus EDITORIAL STAFF Assistant Editors: Newman Bumstead, James Cerruti, Robert L. Conly, Allan C. Fisher, Jr., Gilbert M. Grosvenor, Kenneth MacLeish, John Scofield, Mason Sutherland Issue Editor: Samuel W. Matthews Senior Staff Lonnelle Aikman, Jules B. Billard, Andrew H. Brown, William Graves, Stuart E. Jones, Nathaniel T. Kenney, Howard La Fay, Edward J. 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Magis, Robert W. Nicholson. Research: George W. Beatty, Walter Q. Crowe, Eugene M. Scheel School Service: Ralph Gray (Chief); Thomas Y. Canby, Lea Ridgley Fuller, Arthur P. Miller, Jr., Charles H. Sloan, Janis Knudsen Wheat News Service: Windsor P. Booth (Chief); Louis de la Haba, Matt C. McDade, Sabin Robbiis, Paul G. Sampson; Isabel Clarke (Asst.) Television Service: Robert C. Doyle (Chief) Phototypography:Robert C. Ellis, Jr. (Chief); John McConnell (Asst. Chief), Elizabeth L. Donley Editorial Research: Margaret G. Bledsoe (Chief); Ann K. Wendt (Asst. Chief), Mary Ann Harrell, Levenia Loder, Patricia Rosenborg GeographicResearch: George Crossette (Chief); Newton V. Blakeslee (Asst. Chief), Leon J. Canova, Virginia A. LeVasseur, Jean B. McConville Library: Esther Ann Manion (Librarian); Virginia Carter Hills (Asst. Librarian), Vera Cassillv, Katharine P. O'Donnell EditorialAdministration: Patricia M. Watkins ILLUSTRATIONS STAFF IllustrationsEditor: Herbert S. 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