National Geographic : 1965 Aug
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY WASHINGTON. D.C. 7i \5K j ~C<we K ( -r~ NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, Editor ~ MELVIN M. PAYNE, Executive Vice President FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Associate Editor S FRANC SHOR. Associate Editor JAMES M. DARLEY, CartographerEmeritus Organized "for the increase and . / diffusion of geographic knowledge" , ,, . / The National Geographic Society is chartered in Washington, D. C., in accordance with the laws of the United States, as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization for increasing and diffusing geographic knowledge and promoting research and exploration. Since 1890 the Society has supported more than 285 explorations and re search projects, adding immeasurably to man's knowledge of earth, sea, and sky. It diffuses this knowledge through its monthly journal, NATIONAL GEO (;RAPnIC; more than 28 million maps distributed each year; its books, globes, and atlases; 30 School Bulletins a year in color; information services to press, radio, and television; and the publication of technical monographs. Articles and photographs of travel, natural history, and expeditions to far places are desired. For material used, generous remuneration is made. MELVILLIE BELL GROSVENOR, President and Editor MELVIN M. PAYNE, Executive Vice President and Secretary ROBERT V. FLEMING, Vice President and Treasurer FREDERICK G. VOSBURGHI, Vice President and Associate Editor I.ONARD CARMICIHAEL, Vice President for Research and Exploration ROBERT E. DOYLE, Vice President and Associate Secretary THOMAS M. BEERS, Vice President and Associate Secretary VERNON IH. BREWSTER, IIHERMAN J. A. C . ARENS, WM. T. BELL, HERBERTT. HENDERSON,C.VERNONSANDERS,Associate Secretaries ARTHUR B. HANSON, General Counsel COMMITTEE FOR RESEARCH AND EXPLORATION LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Chairman ALEXANDER WETMORE T. DALE STEWART Vice Chairman Director, Museum of Natural MILVIN M. PAYNE History Vice Chairman Smithsonian Institution Rear Adm. L . O. COLBERT MATTHEW W. STIRLING IHUGH L. DRYDEN Research Associate CARYL P. HASKINS Smithsonian Institution A. REMINGTON KELLOGG JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR. Research Associate Smithsonian Institution CONRAD L. WIRTH Vice Adm. EMORY S. LAND PAUL A. ZAHL and the Senior Officers of the Society BARRY C. BISHOP, Secretary BOARD OF TRUSTEES GILBERT GROSVENOR. Chairman of the Board, formerly President, National Geographic Society, and Editor of its magazine (1899 195.1) THOMAS W. M(cKNIEW, Vice Chairman of theBoard, formerly EIxecurive Vice President and Secretary (1932 1962) LEONARD CARMICHAEL Vice President National Geographic Society LEIO OTIS COLBERT Rear Admiral, U. S . Coast and Geodetic Survey, Retired HUGH L. DRYDEN Deputy Administrator, National Aeronautics & Space Administration ROBERT V. FLEMING Advisory Chairman of the Board and Chairman, Executive Committee, Riggs National Bank CRAWFORD H. GREENEWALT Chairman of the Board, E. I. duPont de Nemours & Company MELVIILE BELL GROSVENOR Editor, National Geographic CARYL P. HASKINS President, Carnegie Institution of Washington EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral, U. S . Navy, Retired, formerly President Air Transport Association CURTIS 1. LiMAY Former Chief of Staff, U. S. Air Force H. RANDOLPH MADDOX Vice President, American Tele phone & Telegraph Company (Ret.) WM. MCICHESNIY MARTIN, JR. Chairman, Board of Governors Federal Reserve System BENJAMIN M. McKE.LWAY Editorial Chairman, Washington Star MELVIN M. PAYNE Executive Vice President National Geographic Society LAURANCE S. ROCKEFELLER Chairman of the Board, Rockefeller Brothers, Inc., and President Jackson Hole Preserve JUAN T. TRIPP1 Chairman of the Board Pan American World Airways FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH Assoc. Editor, National Geographic JAMES H. WAKILIN, JR. Former Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research and Development EARL WARREN Chief Justice of the United States ALEXANDER WETMORE Research Associate Smithsonian Institution LLOYD B. WILSON Honorary Board Chairman, Chesa peake & Potomac Telephone Co. CONRAD L. WIRTH Former Director National Park Service U. S. Department of the Interior LOUIS B. WRIGHT Director, Folger Shakespeare Library Asst. Secretaries: OWEN R. ANDERSON, CHARLES P. BIXEL; Asst. Secretary and Asst. Treasurer: HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON; Asst. Treasurer: WM. H . McCAULEY HERMAN J. A. C. ARENS, Executive Assistant, LEONARD J. GRANT, Editorial Assistant, and Judith N. Dixon, Secretary to the President and Editor; Sibyl Peck, Assistant to the Chairman of the Board; Lenore W. Kessler, Secretary to the Vice Chairman of the Board 4 COVER: Prime Minister Winston Churchill flashes his \-for-Victory in Washington, I). C.,1953 (pages 153-225). HARRIS & EWING 3 N.G .S . EDITORIAL STAFF Assistant Editors: Newman Bumstead, James Cerruti, Robert L. Conly, Allan C. Fisher, Jr., Gilbert M. Grosvenor, Kenneth MacLeish, Carolyn Bennett Patterson, John Scofield, Howell Walker Issue Editor: Samuel W. Matthews Senior Staff Lonnelle Aikman, Jules B. Billard, Andrew H. Brown, Wil liam Graves, Stuart E. Jones Nathaniel T. Kenney, Howard La Fay, Edward J. Linehan, Luis Marden, Bart McDowell, Kenneth F. Weaver, Paul A. Zahi (Natural Sciences) Foreign Staff: W. Robert Moore (Chief); Thomas J. Abercrombie, David S. Boyer, Helen and Frank Schreider, Volkmar Wentzel; Kip Ross (Research) EditorialStaff Wayne Barrett, Rowe Findley, Louis de la Haba, Joanne M. Hess, Werner Janney, Jay Johnston, Robert P. Jordan, Elizabeth A. Moize, Frank Sartwell; Winifred M. Myers, Betty T. Sanborne (Assts.); Dorothy M. Corson (Indexes); Rosalie K. Millerd (Files); Arnvid Nygaard (Chief Translator); Mary Webster Parkhurst Editorial Layout: Howard E. Paine (Chief); Charles C. Uhl Book Service: Merle Severy (Chief); Edwards Park (Assoc. Chief); Seymour L. Fishbein (Asst. Chief), Ross Bennett, Goode P. Davis, Jr., Anne Dirkes Kobor, Patricia Coyle Nicholson, John J. Putman GeographicArt: Newman Bumstead (Chief); William Palmstrom (Asst. Chief). Artists: Irvin E. Alleman, Joseph E. Barrett, Lisa Biganzoli, Gil bert H. Emerson, Victor J. Kelley, John W. Lothers, Robert C. Magis, Robert W. Nicholson, Isaac Ortiz. Research: George W. Beatty, Walter Q. Crowe, Dorothy A. Nicholson, Eugene M. Scheel Editorial Research: Margaret G. Bledsoe (Chief); Ann K. Wendt (Asst. Chief), Margery G. Dunn, Mary Ann Harrell, Jan Holderness, Levenia Loder, Patricia Rosenborg Geographic Research: George Crossette (Chief); Newton V. Blakeslee (Asst. Chief), Leon J. Canova, Margaret Ladd, Virginia A. LeVasseur, Jean B. McConville School Service: Ralph Gray (Chief); Thomas Y. Canby, Lea Ridgley Fuller, Arthur P. Miller, Jr., Charles H. 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Mobley, Albert Moldvay, Thomas Nebbia, Winfield Parks, Joseph J. Scherschel, Robert F. Sisson Picture Editors: Lee E. Battaglia, Donald J. Crump, O. Louis Mazzatenta, Charlene L. Murphy, Robert S. Patton, Arthur A. Terry; Geraldine Linder (Asst.). Librarian:Alan J. Lessel Photo Lab: Edwin L. Wisherd (Chief); Milton A. Ford, Donald McBain, Robert S. Oakes, Claude E. Petrone, Carl M. Shrader, Guy W. Starling PictorialResearch: Walter Meayers Edwards (Chief) Artists: Walter A. Weber (Naturalist), Peter V. Bianchi Engraving & Printing: Dee J. Andella (Chief); Joe M. Barlett, Frank S. Oliverio, William W. Smith CARTOGRAPHIC STAFF Chief Cartographer: Wellman Chamberlin Associate Chief Cartographer:Athos D. Grazzini Asst. Chief William T. Peele, Base Maps and Revisions: Charles L. Stern (Supervisor); David W. Cook, John F. Dorr, Harry C. Siddeley. Map Drawings: Douglas A. Strobel (Supervisor); John J. Brehm, Robert W. Northrop, Thomas A. Wall. GeographicNames: Richard J. Darley (Super visor); Carol J. Cunningham, Donald A. Jaeger, Manuela G. Koguto wicz, George E. Stuart. Oceanography: Apphia E. Holdsrock. Map Edit ing: Ted Dachtera (Supervisor); Russel G. Fritz, Richard K. Rogers. Administrative Assistant: Catherine M. Hart SECRETARY'S STAFF Administrative: Edwin W. Snider, Raymond T. McElligott, Jr., Richard E. Pearson. Accounting: Jay Givans, George F. Fogle, Martha Allen Baggett. Cashier:Frank S. Delk. Statistics: Everett C. Brown. Procurement: J. P. M. Johnston, Robert G. Corey. Payroll and Retirement: Joseph B. Hogan. Membership Fulfillment: Roy J. Klockenbrink. Promotion: Stan Jennings, E. M . Pusey, Jr., Gordon Young, Phyllis Greene. Personnel: James B. Mahon, Mary Louise Cross, Frank A. Holman. Medical: Thomas L. Hartman, M.D. EUROPEAN OFFICE W. E. Roscher (Director) 11 Stanhope Gate, Mayfair, London, W. 1, England ADVERTISING Director: Harley L. McDevitt, New York Eastern Manager: William A. Boeger, Jr.; Asst. Eastern Manager: John R. Weist, New York. Chicago: William Turgeon. Los Angeles: Jack V. Sheehan. San Francisco: Thomas Martz. Automotive Manager: Joseph T. Feeney, New York. Travel Manager:Robert W. Horan, New York Copiyriht © 1965 National Geographic Society, 17th and lMStreet N.W.. Washington. I).C . . 20036.Al rights reserved. Reproduction or use ofthewhole or any part ofthlecontents witlh outwritten perlrmission isprohibited. Printed inlU.S .A.Secolld classpostage paid at Wasihlinlg toln.). (,:, indat additional mailing ofthees. overr design and title protected Ibyinterlla tional trademlark.