National Geographic : 1965 Oct
Sons of the sea, the Portuguese became Eu rope's greatest navigators. Today's fishermen, such as these on a beach near Porto, still dare the oceans in frail vessels. City of the ages, Lisbon meets the 20th cen tury more than halfway. But ultramodern apartments of Portugal's capital show only one face of this hard-pressed little nation, scarcely larger than the State of Maine. In the 1400's Portugal became one of the world's chief mari time powers when her seafarers set sail into the Age of Discovery. Today she struggles to maintain the remnants of a once-global empire. Tradition ascribes Lisbon's founding to the Greek wanderer Ulysses. Originally named Olisipo, the city stands, like Rome, on a series of hills. One in every 11 Portuguese lives here, many in apartments like these on Avenida dos Estados Unidos da America-a reminder of Portugal's long friendship with the U.S .A . Lisbon's varinas, or fishwives, trudge cobbled streets of the Tagus riverfront, wearing shoes unwillingly but as the law requires. They carry headloads of seafood fresh from boats, chanting through the city for customers. Africa. At tremendous cost, the Portuguese army is battling guerrillas in Angola, Mozam bique, and Guinea. I found the crisis reflected in the special sales tax-15 percent on some items-that helps finance the faraway wars. I found it, too, in the myriad signs that sprinkle Lisbon: "Mozambique and Angola, Portuguese for Five Centuries" *... "Portugal Is Not for Sale." I saw it in patriotic demonstrations where out-of-step delegations-firemen with glinting axes on shoulders, women from *See in NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC, "Angola, Unknown Africa," September, 1961; and "Mozambique, Land of the Good People," August, 1964, both by Volkmar Wentzel.