National Geographic : 1950 Mar
The National Geographic's New Map of Africa "ALWAYS something new out of Africa," wrote the Roman scholar Pliny the Elder nearly 1,900 years ago. This time the "something new" is a map of Africa's ancient face in the light of new explorations and political changes. Pliny wrote of winged horses and unicorns, but the old Roman would find even more amazing the airports, oil pipe lines, railroads, and cities shown on the map, "Africa and the Arabian Peninsula," which goes to the Na tional Geographic Society's 1,950,000 mem bers as a supplement to this March issue of their MAGAZINE.* Near East Nations Included The new National Geographic map gives the 1950 picture of the world's second largest continent. Centered on Africa's tremendous continental mass, the 282 by 31 4 -inch sheet covers also all of the Mediterranean countries and waters. All the nations of the Near East are included, together with Russia's oil-rich Caucasus and Iran (Persia). On this map appears the entire Arabian Peninsula. New detail has been added by air planes flying over that old Arab land where American oil men work with the King of Saudi Arabia to tap its vast hoard of petroleum. Madagascar, Madeira, the Canary Islands, and the most eastern of the Azores fall within the limits of the map. An inset shows the Cape Verde Islands. An added feature is a physical map of Africa, showing altitudes and also the Great Rift Valley, created by mighty earth move ments in the geological past. Libya to Be an Independent State This latest in the series of large ten-color maps distributed with the NATIONAL GEO GRAPHIC MAGAZINE represents months of work by The Society's cartographers. It includes the results of aerial and ground surveys made by many countries during and since World War II and reflects the political changes which have taken place in Africa since February, 1943, when The Society last mapped the continent. At that time Allied forces were winning the Battle of Africa preparatory to the in vasion of Italy. Now Libya, pride of Mussolini's Italy, is to be granted independence by a resolution of the General Assembly of the United Nations. It is to be organized as a sovereign state, com prising Cyrenaica, Tripolitania, and Fezzan, as soon as its people can convene a national assembly and agree upon a constitution and form of government, not later than January 1, 1952. The United Nations has recommended that Italian Somaliland (Somalia) shall also be come an independent state, but not until after a 10-year period under Italian trusteeship. Ethiopia has announced its refusal to recog nize the U. N. decision giving Italy this 10 year tenure. The Italians have asked the international body for permission to build military bases in Somaliland. Decision upon Eritrea, also formerly Italian, has been deferred until an international com mission recommends a solution. Meanwhile, it remains under British military occupation. Early this year Britain sent a warship and troops to stop "repeated acts of murder and violence" against Italians in Eritrea. U. N. Trusteeships Replace League Mandates United Nations trusteeships have replaced League of Nations mandates over three of the four African colonies that were lost by Ger many as a result of World War I, but the same powers still govern them. Great Britain administers most of former German East Africa as Tanganyika Territory. The remainder, the Ruanda-Urundi area, is under the Belgians, who have united it ad ministratively with the Belgian Congo. The French were entrusted with the larger share of Germany's Cameroons and have made their portion an autonomous territory. The British section, marked by a pink dashed boundary on the map, is attached to Nigeria for administration. Germany's Togo also was divided between the British and French. Pink dashes mark off the British area, which is attached to the Gold Coast for administration. The French have a territorial government for their portion of Togo. The fourth former German colony, South West Africa, continues to be administered by the Union of South Africa in the spirit of the old League of Nations mandate. New provincial boundaries are shown in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, a condominium administered by the British and Egyptians. * Members may obtain additional copies of the map of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula (and of all standard maps published by The Society) by writing to the National Geographic Society, Wash ington 6, D. C. Prices, in United States and Pos sessions, 500 each on paper; $1 on linen; Index, 25(. Outside United States and Possessions, 75 on paper; $1.25 on linen; Index, 50(. All remittances payable in U. S. funds. Postage prepaid.