National Geographic : 1950 Dec
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDING SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON 6, D. C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer HERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman, Research Committee ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research Committee JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice-President THOMAS W. McKNEW, Secretary VERNON H. BREWSTER, Assistant Secretary MELVIN M. PAYNE, Assistant Secretary KURTZ M. HANSON, Assistant Secretary EXECUTIVE STAFF OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor J. R. HILDEBRAND Assistant Editor LEO A. BORAII Assistant Editor JAMES M. DARLEY Chief Cartographer NEWMAN BUMSTEAD Research Cartographer CHARLES E. RIDDIFORD Cartographic Staff WELLMAN CHAMBERLIN Cartographic Staff GEORGE CROSSETTE Research Assistant RAYMOND W. WELCH Director of Advertising GILBERT G. LA GORCE Assistant Director of Advertising GEORGE C. MARSHALL Secretary of Defense General of the Army, Retired WALTER S. GIFFORD U. S. Ambassador to Great Britain Honorary Chairman of the Board American Tel. and Tel. Co. WILLIAM V. PRATT Admiral U. S. Navy, Retired LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director National Bureau of Standards, Retired ELISHA IIANSON Lawyer and Naturalist EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral Construction Corps, U. S. Navy, Retired; President, Air Transport Association GEORGE R. PUTNAM Commissioner of Lighthouses, Retired FRANKLIN L. FISHER Chief Illustrations Division, National Geographic Magazine MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH Editorial Staff LEONARD C. ROY Chief of School Service WILLIAM H. NICHOLAS Editorial Staff F. BARROWS COLTON Editorial Staff ANDREW H. BROWN Editorial Staff INEZ B. RYAN Research Assistant ESTHER ANN MANION Librarian WILLIAM A. KINNEY Chief News Bulletin Service BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V. FLEMING President and Chairman of the Board, Riggs National Bank CHARLES F. KETTERING Consultant and Iirector, General Motors Corporation LEROY A. LINCOLN President Metropolitan Life Insurance Company JUAN T. TRIPPE President Pan American Airways DAVID FAIRCHILD Special Agricultural Explorer, U. S. Department of Agriculture ALEXANDER WETMORE Secretary Smithsonian Institution GILBERT GROSVENOR Editor of National Geographic Magazine MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor, National Geographic Magazine FRANKLIN L. FISHER Chief Illustrations Division MAYNARD OWEN WILLIAMS Chief Foreign Editorial Staff W. ROBERT MOORE Foreign Editorial Staff LUIS MARDEN Foreign Editorial Staff EDWIN L. WISHERD Chief Photographic Laboratory WALTER M. EDWARDS Illustrations Iivision KIP ROSS Illustrations Division MASON SITIHERLAND Editorial Staff HOWELL WALKER Editorial Staff CHARLES G. DAWES Formerly Vice-President of the United States LLOYD B. WILSON Formerly Chairman of the Board Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies L. O. COLBERT Rear Admiral, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Retired ERNEST E. NORRIS President Southern Railway System JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE Associate Editor of the National Geographic Magazine J. R. IIILDEBRAND Assistant Editor, National Geographic Magazine THOMAS W. McKNEW Secretary, National Geographic Society ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which it was founded On November II, 1935, in a flight sponsored jointly sixty-two years ago, the National Geographic Society pub- by the National Geographic Society and the U. S. Army lishes this Magazine monthly. All receipts are invested Air Corps, the world's largest balloon, Explorer II, as in The Magazine itself or expended directly to promote cended to the world altitude record of 72,395 feet. geographic knowledge. Capt. Albert W. Stevens and Capt. Orvil A. Anderson Articles and photographs are desired. For material took aloft in the gondola nearly a ton of scientific instru The Magazine uses, generous remuneration is made. ments, and obtained results of extraordinary value. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys The National Geographic Society-U . S. Army Air constantly being made, The Society has sponsored more Forces Expedition, from a camp in southern Brazil, pho than loo scientific expeditions, some of which required tographed and observed the solar eclipse of 1947. This years of field work to achieve their objectives, was the seventh expedition of The Society to observe a The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back total eclipse of the sun. the historic horizons of the southwestern United States The Society cooperated with Dr. William Beebe in to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus deep-sea explorations off Bermuda, during which a world crossed the Atlantic. By dating the ruins of the vast record depth of 3,028 feet was attained. communal dwellings in that region, The Society's re searches solved secrets that had puzzled historians for The Society granted $25,00oo, and in addition $75,ooo three hundred years. was given by individual members, to the Government In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Institu- when the congressional appropriation for the purpose In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Institu- was insufficient, and the finest of the giant sequoia trees tion, January 16, 1939, discovered the oldest work of man in the Giant Forest of Sequoia National Park of California in the Americas for which we have a date. This slab of stone is engraved in Mayan characters with a date which were thereby saved for te American people. means November 4, 291 B. c. (Spinden Correlation). It One of the world's largest icefields and glacial systems antedates by 200 years anything heretofore dated in outside the polar regions was discovered in Alaska and America, and reveals a great center of early American Yukon by Bradford Washburn while exploring for The culture, previously unknown. Society and the Harvard Institute of Exploration, 1938. Copyright. 1950. by National Geographic Society. Washington D. C. International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reservados todos los derechos. Printed in U. S. A. Entered at the Post Office at Washington, D. C.. as Second Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in.Sec. 1103. Act of October 3, 1917, authorized July 1, 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.