National Geographic : 1951 Jan
e'TellHalaf /, STell BrakJAinZalah I KhosarRiver Gr ain Ql'eh* +p Zenjan (y ( DurSharrukin (Khorsabad mTepeGawra 11sss +9400 t I ... MosU Nineveh (Kouyunjikand Neb nus) C Kuh-i -Rustani Qasab .Erbil (Arbela) 9030+ Hassua Calah (Nrirud) ....." :4 8957K tar Sy Jawan a ara Mount Nisi t Rash 8X8 2913 ; 8489+ + 8662 Naimah 3 irkuk Jaro y KarTukulti-Ninu a '- ulai auya - Sharqat (Ashur), "Kirkuk a SShar at u(Ashui L I Iu Sanandaj(Sinneh) s 2236 +5923 10705 800 1229+ 1725 +11043 \ Hamada" 1229+ -. z 0 -hu atz ' . Sun M (Tell Hariri) O TuzKhurmaunq rAtn a Tikt u;barTuunnari - nSin 427+r a *ans a4 7. A .K. Khana anshh "Iis +ol +748 Samarra 812 p NehavGend NaftNKneh Naft-i-Shah V e 1936 SO ' \' '\ Burujird }//a,, ManithtKuh (I Traditional Sit it (Is) TellAsmar +9 0 o Garden of Eden - (Eshnunna) Lur tn (DurKugalz 'Aqarq u ' Khafaje +9170 Khans Equivalents aghdad --------- Water,Sea +715 Hor....Marsh, Depression Sippa ., . Ku ---- Mountain Bahr aiMa kkad Tel,Tepe .- _Mound,Hill aha A aL .MiyUl i e1~ . Karbala ylon a j^^ 0 """Imam -ATepeMusyan AS Karbala "Kish Dizful o0n i40 'u hush (Suss tf - -. An Najaf* Nippur mra Bf 3 lO B tac ssin s U a Telloh +s79 I stanbtj u e jr 40 Phrygia I' Erech, rkWa Awa . - I - m AAaloaKE na Tea Qurn 'E m -, - . T a s Urofthe Chaldees. 1 ash Cyprus AlePb sa ' erranLEBANo SYRIA ^-' ~ AzZubair * bd *Se- SIdAEA ChaIdea 5 sRAE IR o soL OO .Ierusale STATUT MILES . * 000 4' eI Archeological sites a Ruins:.. \Persian o sTATUTEMILES \4 SAARBIA 1^. Oilpipelines ----- Oil fields KUWAIT Gul 45 Drawn by Harry S. Oliver and IrvinE. Allenan Mesopotamia: the Birthplace of Writing, the Cradle of Civilization The area includes the Garden of Eden; ancient Sumer and Babylon; Jarmo, earliest known village in the world; and Tepe Gawra, the 3,000-year-old mound that was the site of 26 settlements, each built upon the ruins of its predecessor. guage lived on, as the tool of religion and rose to prominence (page 90). The state science, just as did the Latin of the Middle which that city founded-Assyria-was to Ages-some three millenniums later, grow in the course of the succeeding centuries, Under the increasingly powerful impact of not unlike the Roman state of a much later written and oral tradition, the civilization of age, into a great world empire. Mesopotamia expanded; but it separated into To carry the parallelism still further, two individual channels. In the south its Ashur's relations with Babylon followed the guardians and beneficiaries at this time were same pattern that was to become so typical the Babylonians, whose peak of power and of Rome's relations with Greece: The political glory was reached in the 18th and the early and military superior in each case became 17th century B. c., under the First Dynasty of deeply indebted to its rival culturally, and Babylon, and more especially under that dy nasty's best-known ruler, the far-famed Ham- * See, in the NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE: "Cradle of Civilization," by James Baikie; and "Push murabi (page 85).* ing Back History's Horizon," by Albert T. Clay, both In the north, the city of Ashur gradually February, 1916.