National Geographic : 1951 Jan
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDING SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON 6, D. C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice-President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer THOMAS W. McKNEW, Secretary IERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer VERNON II. BREWSTER, Assistant Secretary LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman, Research Committee MELVIN M. PAYNE, Assistant Secretary ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research KURTZ M. HANSON, Assistant Secretary Committee EXECUTIVE STAFF OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR J. R . IIILDEBRAND Assistant Editor LEO A. BORAH Assistant Editor JAMES M. DARLEY Chief Cartographer NEWMAN BUMSTEAD Research Cartographer CHARLES E. RIDDIFOR Cartographic Staff WELLMAN CIIAMBERL Cartographic Staff GEORGE CROSSETTE Research Assistant RAYMOND W. WELCH Director of Advertising GILBERT G. LA GORCE Assistant Director of Adv GEORGE C. MARSHALL Secretary of Defense General of the Army, R WALTER S. GIFFORD U. S . Ambassador to Grea Honorary Chairman of t American Tel. and Te WILLIAM V. PRATT Admiral U. S. Navy, Reti LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director National Bureau Standards, Retired ELISHA HANSON Lawyer and Naturalist EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral Constructio U. S. Navy, Retired; P Air Transport Associ GEORGE R. PUTNAM Commissioner of Lighthou Retired FRANKLIN L. FISHER Chief Illustrations Divisio National Geographic M JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH MAY: Assistant Editor C LEONARD C. ROY Chief of School Service WILLIAM H. NICHOLAS Editorial Staff F. BARROWS COLTON D Editorial Staff ANDREW II. BROWN Chie IN Editorial Staff INEZ B. RYAN Research Assistant MARGARET G. BLEDSOE Research Assistant ESTHER ANN MANION Librarian WILLIAM A. KINNEY ertising Chief News Bulletin Service BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V. FLEMING President and Chairman of the etired Board, Riggs National Bank CHARLES F. KETTERING t Britain Consultant and Director. Forme he Board General Motors Corporation I. Co. LEROY A. LINCOLN red President Metropolitan Life Insurance Company Re; of JUAN T. TRIPPE President Pan American Airways DAVID FAIRCHILD Special Agricultural Explorer, U. S. Department of Agriculture J n Corps, Assoc 'resident, ALEXANDER WETMORE Assoc ition Secretary Smithsonian Institution GILBERT GROSVENOR ises, Editor of National Geographic Magazine MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR n, Assistant Editor, National Geographic Secr agazine Magazine FRANKLIN L. FISHER Chief Illustrations Division NARD OWEN WILLIAMS hief Foreign Editorial Staff W. ROBERT MOORE Foreign Editorial Staff LUIS MARDEN Foreign Editorial Staff EDWIN L. WISIERD f Photographic Laboratory WALTER M. EDWARDS Illustrations Division KIP ROSS Illustrations Division MASON SUTHERLAND Editorial Staff HOWELL WALKER Editorial Staff CHARLES G. DAWES Formerly Vice-President of the United States LLOYD B. WILSON rly Chairman of the Board Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies L. O. COLBERT ar Admiral, U. S . Coast and Geodetic Survey, Retired ERNEST E. NORRIS President Southern Railway System OHN OLIVER LA GORCE iate Editor of tile National Geographic Magazine J. R. HIILDEBRAND Assistant Editor, National Geographic Magazine THOMAS W. McKNEW etary, National Geographic Society ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which it was founded On November II, 1935, in a flight sponsored jointly sixty-three years ago, the National Geographic Society by the National Geographic Society and the U. S . Army publishes this Magazine monthly. All receipts are in- Air Corps, the world's largest balloon, Explorer II, as vested in The Magazine itself or expended directly to cended to the world altitude record of 72,395 feet. promote geographic knowledge. Capt. Albert W. Stevens and Capt. Orvil A. Anderson Articles and photographs are desired. For material took aloft in tie gondola nearly a ton of scientific instru The Magazine uses, generous remuneration is made. ments, and obtained results of extraordinary value. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys A notable undertaking in the history of astronomy was constantly being made, The Society has sponsored more launched in 1949 by Tie Society in cooperation with the than 1oo scientific expeditions, some of which required Palomar Observatory of the California Institute of years of field work to achieve their objectives. Technology. This project will require four years to The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back photomap tle vast reaches of space, and will provide the historic horizons of the southwestern United States t h e first sky atlas for observatories all over the world. to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus In 1948 The Society sent out seven expeditions to crossed the Atlantic. By dating the ruins of the vast study the eclipse of the sun along a 5,320-mile arc from communal dwellings in that region, The Society's re- Burma to the Aleutians. The fruitful results helped link searches solved secrets that had puzzled historians for geodetic surveys of North America and Asia. three hundred years. In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Institu- T h e Society granted $25,000, and in addition $75,000 lion, January 16, 1939, discovered the oldest work of man was contributed by individual members, to help preserve in the Americas for which we have a date. This slab of for the American people the finest of the giant sequoia trees stone is engraved in Mayan characters with a date which in the Giant Forest of Sequoia National Park of California. means November 4, 291 B. c. (Spinden Correlation). It One of the world's largest icefields and glacial systems antedates by 200 years anything heretofore dated in outside the polar regions was discovered in Alaska and America, and reveals a great center of early American Yukon by Bradford Washburn while exploring for The culture, previously unknown. Society and the Harvard Institute of Exploration, 1938. Copyright, 1950. by National Geographic Society. Washington D. C. International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reservados todo los derechos. Printed in U. . A. Entered at the Post Office at Washington, D. C .. as Second Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1111 . Act of October 3, 1917. authorized July 1, 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.