National Geographic : 1951 Mar
New National Geographic Map Shows Changes in Asia and Europe SINCE World War II, Russia has ex panded its borders by 264,400 square miles and communized nine neighbor ing countries. In this period, Western nations have granted freedom to 13 Asiatic lands containing one-fourth of the human race. Recording the tremendous transformation, the National Geographic Society's new map of Asia and Adjacent Areas presents up-to date geographical background for the prob lems facing the world in Eurasia. "Adjacent Areas" include Europe, a penin sula of Mother Asia. The mapped area con tains 30 percent of the land surface of the globe and is home to 80 percent of the earth's people. From the British Isles to Bering Sea and from the Arctic to Australia, the changing Old World is spread before The Society's members in the light of the latest data. All members receive the 10-color map as a timely supplement to their March, 1951, NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE. More than 2,000,000 copies have rolled from big lithographic presses to meet the needs of the membership and agencies of the Government and United Nations.* The 37-by-29-inch sheet bears 7,646 place names, many of them new as a result of portentous postwar changes. Russia Swallows Equivalent of 11 States Soviet Russia, stretching from Bering to Baltic, bulks larger than ever after swallowing the gains of World War II-81,900 square miles in Asia and 182,500 square miles of European territory. These gains by the world's largest country are more than equal to all of New England, New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina.t The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, "Russia" for short to most Americans, is now 2.87 times the size of the continental United States and holds an estimated 50,000,000 more people than our own 152,300,000. Moscow has extended its sway far beyond even these greatly expanded borders by turn ing neighbor nations into Communist satel lites-Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Ro mania, Bulgaria, Albania, Mongolian Republic, and then immensely populous China. Com munist Yugoslavia's refusal to be a Russian puppet was heavily outweighed by the com munizing of China, whose swarming popula tion totals 452,548,000, almost three times the number of people in the United States. Aggressive communism, backed by the grim threat of Russia's undemobilized armies, has caused turmoil in Korea, Indochina, even the Shangri-la land of Tibet, and compelled the United States, Great Britain, and other de mocracies of the West to begin rebuilding the forces they so quickly disbanded after World War II. Tragic events in Korea, once remote, have reached into every American home. Ramparts We Watch At the outer edges of the map rise the bas tions of the West. With their easternmost defenses in divided Germany and their small but growing forces united under General of the Army Dwight D. Eisenhower, ten nations of Western Europe stand together and with the United States and Canada, linked by the North Atlantic Treaty and a common heritage of free institutions. On the other flank are United Nations forces seeking to prevent the spread of Communist conquest in Asia. Oc cupied Japan, Okinawa, Formosa, and the Philippines form a chain protecting the Pacific. Once-strong Japan is prostrate militarily. Its 82,000,000 people are dependent upon the West for protection, at least until a peace treaty can be written. Its present constitu tion renounces war and preparation for war. Russians now are close to the Japanese islands, in the Kurils and southern Sakhalin Island, which Stalin won by agreement at Yalta as part of his price for the eleventh hour Soviet attack on mainland troops of tottering Japan. Three hundred and twenty miles south of Japan, Okinawa serves the United States as an unsinkable aircraft carrier. Within fighter range to the southwest lies the unhappy island of Formosa-Taiwan, as the Chinese call it. It forms the refuge of the Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek and his armies driven from the mainland. In Communist hands the fertile island of palms, paddies, and misty mountains could form a wedge between American bases in Okinawa and the Philippines and threaten * Members may obtain additional copies of the new map of Asia and Adjacent Areas (and of all standard maps published by The Society) by writing to the National Geographic Society, Washington 6, D. C. Prices, in United States and Possesssions, 50 each on paper; $1 on linen; Index, 25 4. Outside United States and Possessions, 75( on paper; $1.25 on linen; Index, 504 . All remittances payable in U. S. funds. Postage prepaid. t See "The Society's New Map of Europe and the Near East," by Athos D. Grazzini, NATIONAL GEO GRAPHIC MAGAZINE, June, 1949.