National Geographic : 1951 May
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDING SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON 6, D. C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice-President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer THOMAS W. McKNEW, Secretary IIHERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer VERNON H. BREWSTER. Assistant Secretary IIILLEARY F. IIOSKINSON, Assistant Treasurer MELVIN M. PAYNE, Assistant Secretary LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman, Research Committee KI'RTZ M. HANSON, Assistant Secretary ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research Committee EXECUTIVE STAFF OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor J. R. IIILDEBRAND Assistant Editor LEO A. BORAH Assistant Editor JAMES M. IARLEY Chief Cartographer NEWMAN BI MSTEADI Research Cartographer CIIARLES E. RIDDIFORD Cartographic Staff WELLMAN CHAMBERLIN Cartographic Staff GEORGE CROSSETTE Research Assistant RAYMOND W. WELCHI Director of Advertising GILBERT G. LA GORCE Assistant Director of Advertising (EORGE C. MARSHALL Secretary of Defense General of the Army, Retired LEROY A. LINCOI.N Chairiani of the Board Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director National Bureau of Standards, Retired EILSIIA HANSON Lawyer and Naturalist EMORY S. LANI) Vice Admiral Construction Corps, U. S. Navy, Retired; President, Air Transport Association GEORG(E R. PUTNAM Commissioner of Lighthouses, Retired FRANKLIN L. FISHER Chief Illustrations Division, National Geographic Magazine MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH Assistant Editor LEONARD C. ROY Chief of School Service WILLIAM H. NICHOLAS Editorial Staff F. BARROWS COLTON Editorial Staff ANDREW H. BROWN Editorial Staff INEZ B. RYAN Research Assistant MARGARET G. BLEDSOE Research Assistant ESTHER ANN MANION Librarian WILLIAM A. KINNEY Chief News Bulletin Service BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V. FLEMING President and Chairman of the Board, Riggs National Bank CHARLES F. KETTERING Consultant and Director. General Motors Corporation WILLIAM V. PRATT Admiral U. S . Navy, Retired JUAN T. TRIPPE President Pan American Airways DAVID FAIRCHILD Special Agricultural Explorer, U. S. Department of Agriculture ALEXANDER WETMORE Secretary Smithsonian Institution GILBERT GROSVENOR Editor of National Geographic Magazine MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor, National Geographic Magazine FRANKLIN L. FISHER Chief Illustrations Division MAYNARD OWEN WILLIAMS Chief Foreign Editorial Staff W. ROBERT MOORE Foreign Editorial Staff LUIS MARIEN Foreign Editorial Staff EDWIN L. WISIIERI Chief Photographic Laboratory WALTER M. EDWARDS Illustrations Division KIP ROSS Illustrations Division MASON SUTHIERLAND Editorial Staff HOWELL WALKER Editorial Staff CHARLES G. DA\VES Formerly Vice-President of the United States LL.OYD B. WILSON Formerly Chairman of the Board Chesapeake and IPotornac Telephone Companies L. O . COIBERT Rear Admiral, U. S . Coast and Geodetic Survey, Retired ERNEST E. NORRIS President Southern Railway System JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE Associate Editor of the National Geographic Magazine J. R. HIILDEBRAND Assistant Editor, National (eographic Magazine THOMAS W. McKNEW Secretary, National Geographic Society ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which it was founded On November ii, 1935, in a flight sponsored jointly sixty-three years ago, the National Geographic Society by the National Geographic Society and the '. .S. Army publishes the National Geographic Magazine monthly. Air Corps, the world's largest balloon, Explorer II, as All receipts are invested in The Magazine itself or ex- cended to the world altitude record of 72,395 feet. pended directly to promote geographic knowledge. Capt. Albert W. Stevens and Capt. Orvil A. Anderson Articles and photographs are desired. For material took aloft in the gondola nearly a ton of scientific instru The Magazine uses, generous remuneration is made. ments, and obtained results of extraordinary value. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys A notable undertaking in the history of astronomy was constantly being made, The Society has sponsored more launched in 1949 by The Society in cooperation with the than oo scientific expeditions, some of which required Palomar Observatory of the California Institute of years of field work to achieve their objectives. Technology. This project will require four years to The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back photomap the vast reaches of space, and will provide the historic horizons of the southwestern United States the first sky atlas for observatories all over the world. to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus In 1948 The Society sent out seven expeditions to crossed the Atlantic. By dating the ruins of the vast study the eclipse of the sun along a 5,320-mile arc from communal dwellings in that region, The Society s re- Burma to the Aleutians. The fruitful results helped link searches solved secrets that had puzzled historians for geodetic surveys of North America and Asia. three hundred years. SMexico, e Society and the Sitsonian tit- The Society granted $25,000, and in addition $75,000 In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Institu- contributed by individual members, to elp preserve tion, Jauary 16, I939, discovered the oldest ork of man was by individual members to help preserve in January 16 19, discoerdvee a date. network nof for the American people thle finest of thle giant sequlloia trees in the Americas for which we have a date. This slab of stoiie is eiigraved in Mayan characters with a date which in the Giant Forest of Sequoia National Park of California. means November 4, 291 B. c . (Spinden Correlation). It One of the world's largest icefields and glacial systems antedates by 200 years anything heretofore dated in outside the polar regions was discovered in Alaska and America, and reveals a great center of early American Yukon by Bradford Washburn while exploring for The culture, previously unknown. Society and the Harvard Institute of Exploration, 1938. Copyright, 1951 by National Geo raphic Sciety. Washington. D. C . International opyriht secu red. All rights resered. Quedan reservados tidos los derechos. Printed in IJS. A. Entered at the Pos.t Oice at Washiigton, D. C. . as Second (lass Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103. Act of October 3, 1917. authorized July i. 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.