National Geographic : 1951 Aug
143 National Geographic Photographer Maynard Owen Williams Faithful Moslems, Heads Covered, Shoes Removed, Bow Toward Mecca from Ship Deck About 800 such travelers, including women and children, accompanied the author on a five-day Black Sea voyage from Istanbul to Hopa (map, pages 144-5). Throughout the trip they lived in the open. Some raised tiny tents against rain and sun. Five times a day they lined up on hatch covers for prayers. turn, the Assembly later elects one of its own members as President of Turkey. In free and orderly balloting, by both men and women, the Democratic Party voted out of power the Republican People's Party of Kemal Atatiirk and Ismet Inonii, Turkish strong men who had been in office 27 years. Celal Bayar, former Prime Minister under both leaders, became the nation's first President under a two-party system. Said my friend: "Maybe the Democrats will win again; maybe the Republicans. But the 1950 election proved that the choice lies with the people. That, as we see it, is democracy." A new 20-kurus (about seven cents) postage stamp pictures three young Turks in modern dress watching an aged farm woman casting her ballot on May 14, 1950. On that day, absolute monarchy, benevolent dictatorship, and one-party government came to an end. Tsar Nicholas I called Turkey the "Sick Man of Europe." While I taught in Turkey before World War I, Italy and the Balkan lands were carving off great hunks of the Otto man Empire, which extended from the Adri atic to the Arabian Sea. But Russia faces no "Sick Man" now. Turkey today is the most powerful nation between Italy and Pakistan, with an army of some 400,000 men.