National Geographic : 1951 Sep
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDING SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON 6, D. C . GILBERT GROSVENOR, President JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice-President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer THOMAS W. McKNEW, Secretary IERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer VERNON II. BREWSTER, Assistant Secretary IIILLEARY F. IIOSKINSON, Assistant Treasurer MELVIN M. PAYNE, Assistant Secretary LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman, Research Committee KURTZ M. IIANSON. Assistant Secretary ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research Committee EXECUTIVE STAFF OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor J. R. HILDEBRAND Assistant Editor LEO A. BORAII Assistant Editor JAMES M. DARLEY Chief Cartographer NEWMAN BUIMSTEAD Research Cartographer CHARLES E. RIDDIFORD Cartographic Staff WELLMAN CHAMBERLIN Cartographic Staff GEORGE CROSSETTE Research Assistant RAYMOND W. WELCH Director of Advertising GILBERT G. LA GORCE Assistant Director of Advertising GEORGE C. MARSHALL Secretary of Defense General of the Army, Retired CURTIS E. LEMAY Lieutenant General, I. S. Air Force Commanding, Strategic Air Command LEROY A. LINCOLN Chairman of the Board Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director National Bureau of Standards, Retired JUAN T. TRIPPE President Pan American Airways ELISIIA HANSON Lawyer and Naturalist GEORGE R. PUTNAM Commissioner of Lighthouses, Retired FRANKLIN L. FISHER Chief Illustrations Division, National Geographic Magazine MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor FREDERICK G. VOSBURGII Assistant Editor WILLIAM H. NICHOLAS Assistant Editor LEONARD C. ROY Chief of School Service F. BARROWS COLTON Editorial Staff ANDREW II. BROWN Editorial Staff WILLIAM A. KINNEY Editorial Staff INEZ B. RYAN Research Assistant MARGARET G. BLEDSOE Research Assistant ESTHER ANN MANION Librarian BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V. FLEMING President and Chairman of the Board, Riggs National Bank HUGH L. DRYDEN Director, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics WILLIAM V. PRATT Admiral U. S. Navy, Retired EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral Construction Corps, U. S. Navy, Retired; President, Air Transport Association DAVID FAIRCHILD Special Agricultural Explorer, U. S. Department of Agriculture ALEXANDER WETMORE Secretary Smithsonian Institution GILBERT GROSVENOR Editor of National Geographic Magazine MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor, National Geographic Magazine FRANKLIN L. FISHER Chief Illustrations Division MAYNARD OWEN WILLIAMS Chief Foreign Editorial Staff W. ROBERT MOORE Foreign Editorial Staff LIIS MARDEN Foreign Editorial Staff EDWIN L. WISHERD Chief Photographic Laboratory WALTER M. EDWARDS Illustrations Division KIP ROSS Illustrations Division MASON SITTHERLAND Editorial Staff HOWELL WALKER Editorial Staff CHARLES F. KETTERING Consultant and Director, General Motors Corporation LLOYD B. WILSON Formerly Chairman of the Board Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies L. O. COLBERT Rear Admiral, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Retired ERNEST E. NORRIS President Southern Railway System JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE Associate Editor of the National Geographic Magazine J. R . HILDEBRAND Assistant Editor, National Geographic Magazine THOMAS W. McKNEW Secretary, National Geographic Society ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which it was founded On November II, 1935, in a flight sponsored jointly sixty-three years ago, the National (eographic Society by the National Geographic Society and the U. S. Army publishes the National Geographic Magazine monthly. Air Corps, the world's largest balloon, Explorer II, as All receipts are invested in The Magazine itself or ex- cended to the world altitude record of 72,395 feet. pended directly to promote geographic knowledge. Capt. Albert W. Stevens and Capt. Orvil A. Anderson Articles and photographs are desired. For material took aloft in the gondola nearly a ton of scientific instru The Magazine uses, generous remuneration is made. ments, and obtained results of extraordinary value. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys A notable undertaking in the history of astronomy was constantly being made, The Society has sponsored more launched in 1949 by The Society in cooperation with the than too scientific expeditions, some of which required Palomar Observatory of the California Institute of years of field work to achieve their objectives. Technology. This project will require four years to The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back photomap the vast reaches of space, and will provide the historic horizons of the southwestern United States the first sky atlas for observatories all over the world. to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus In 1948 The Society sent out seven expeditions to crossed the Atlantic. By dating the ruins of the vast study the eclipse of the sun along a 5,320-mile arc from communal dwellings in that region, The Society's re- Burma to the Aleutians. The fruitful results helped link searches solved secrets that had puzzled historians for geodetic surveys of North America and Asia. three hundred years. threehundrxico, Te Soiety and the Smithsonian Instit- The Society granted $25,000, and in addition $75,000 In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Insttu- was contributed by individual members, to help preserve tion, January 16, 1939, discovered the oldest work of man for the American people the finest of the giant sequoia trees in the Americas for which we have a date. This slab of in the Giant Forest of Sequoia National Park of California. stone is engraved in Mayan characters with a date which means November 4, 291 B. c . (Spinden Correlation). It One of the world's largest icefields and glacial systems antedates by 200 years anything heretofore dated in outside the polar regions was discovered in Alaska and America, and reveals a great center of early American Yukon by Bradford Washburn while exploring for The culture, previously unknown. Society and the Harvard Institute of Exploration, 1938. Copyright. 1961, by National Geographic Society. Washington. D. C. International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reservados todos los derechos. Printed in U. S. A. Entered at the Post Office at Washington. D. C. . as Second Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103, Act of October 3, 1917. authorized July 1. 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.