National Geographic : 1952 Feb
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON 6, D. C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer HERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer HILLEARY F. IOSKINSON, Assistant Treasurer LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman, Research Committee ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research Committee SIBYL PECK, Assistant to the President JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice-President THOMAS W. McKNEW, Secretary VERNON H. BREWSTER, Assistant Secretary MELVIN M. PAYNE, Assistant Secretary KURTZ M. HANSON, Assistant Secretary ROBERT E. DOYLE, Assistant Secretary MABEL F. STRIDER, Personnel Officer Senior Assistant Editor MELVILLE BELL GROSV Assistant Editors FREDERICK G. VOSBURC LEO A. BORAH WILLIAM H. NICIIOLAS F. BARROWS COLTON Editorial Staff MASON SUTHERLAND WILLIAM A. KINNEY GEORGE W. LONG ANDREW H. BROWN ROBERT LESLIE CONLY LONNELLE AIKMAN STUART E. JONES ALLAN C. FISHER Foreign Editorial Staff MAYNARD OWEN WILLIA W. ROBERT MOORE LUIS MARI)EN HOWELL WALKER Research Staff INEZ B. RYAN MARGARET G. BLEDSOE GEORGE C. MARSHALL General of the Army Formerly Secretary of Defe CURTIS E. LEMAY General, U. S. Air Force, Con Strategic Air Command LEROY A. LINCOLN Chairman of the Board Metropolitan Life Insuranc LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director, National Bureau of Standards, Retired H. RAN)DOLPII MADDOX President, Chesapeake and Po Telephone Companies ELISHA HANSON Lawyer and Naturalist GEORGE R. PUTNAM Commissioner of Lighthouses FRANKLIN L. FISHER Illustrations Editor National Geographic Magaz STAFF OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor Chief Cartographer ENOR JAMES M. DARLEY Cartographic Staff GH NEWMAN BUMSTEAD, Asst. Chief CHARLES E. RIDDIFORD WELLMAN CHAMBERLIN E GEORGE CROSSETTE E ATHOS D. GRAZZINI IE JOHN J. BREHM RALPH E. McALEER APPHIA HOLDSTOCK C. RICHARD DARLEY School Service IHA LEONARD C. ROY, Chief RALPH GRAY News Service WINDSOR P. BOOTH, Chief tMS, Chief JOHN R. HOOPES Advertising RAYMOND W. WELCI, Director GILBERT G. LA GORCE, Asst. Director Librarian ESTIER ANN MANION BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V. FLEMING President and Chairman of the nse Board, Riggs National Bank G ALEXANDER WETMORE imanding Secretary, Smithsonian Institution For HUGH L. DRYDEN Director, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics e Co. WILLIAM V. PRATT Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired R JUAN T. TRIPPE President, Pan American Airways WILLIAM E. WRATHER Director, 1U. S. Geological Survey tomac DAVID FAIRCHILD Special Agricultural Explorer, U. S. Ass Department of Agriculture GILBERT GROSVENOR Editor of the National Geographic Vice ,Retired Magazine U.S MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Senior Assistant Editor zine National Geographic Magazine Secretary Illustrations Editor FRANKLIN L. FISHER Illustrations Staff WALTER M. EDWARDS KIP ROSS ANDREW POGGENPOHL 'WARD C. FERRIIAY, JR. DEE JAMES ANI)ELLA ERBERT S. WILBURN, JR. ROBERT J. REYNOLDS \RO STILLWELL, Librarian Photographic Laboratory DWIN L. WISIIERD, Chief D H. STEWART, Asst. Chief FRANK H. WILDUNG Staff Photographers B. ANTHONY STEWART WILLARD R. CULVER J. BAYLOR ROBERTS VOLKMAR WENTZEL JUSTIN LOCKE ROBERT F. SISSON JOHN E. FLETCIER Staff Artist and Naturalist WALTER A. WEBER CHARLES F. KETTERING Consultant and Director ;eneral Motors Corporation LLOYD B. WILSON merly Chairman of the Board Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies L. O. COLBERT .ear Admiral, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Retired ERNEST E. NORRIS Chairman of the Board Southern Railway System JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE sociate Editor of the National Geographic Magazine EMORY S. LAND Admiral, Construction Corps . Navy, Retired; President ir Transport Association THOMAS W. McKNEW , National Geographic Society ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which it was founded sixty four years ago, the National Geographic Society publishes the National Geographic Magazine monthly. All receipts are in vested in The Magazine itself or expended directly to promote geographic knowledge. Articles and photographs are desired. For material The Magazine uses, generous remuneration is made. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys con stantly being made, The Society has sponsored more than 100 scientific expeditions, some of which required years of field work to achieve their objectives. The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back the historic horizons of the southwestern United States to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus crossed the Atlantic. By dating the ruins of the vast communal dwellings in that region, The Society's researches solved secrets that had puzzled historians for three hundred years. In Mexico The Society and the Smithsonian Institution, January 16, 1939, discovered the oldest work of man in the Americas for which we have a date. This slab of stone is en graved in Mayan characters with a date which means Novem ber 4, 291 B. c. (Spinden Correlation). It antedates by 200 years anything heretofore dated in America, and reveals a great center of early American culture, previously unknown. On November II. 1935, in a flight sponsored jointly by the National Geographic Society and the U. S . Army Air Corps, the world's largest balloon, Explorer II, ascended to the world altitude record of 72,395 feet. Capt. Albert W. Stevens and Capt. Orvil A. Anderson took aloft in the gondola nearly a ton of scientific instruments, and obtained results of extraordinary value. A notable undertaking in the history of astronomy was launched in 1949 by The Society in cooperation ,Sith the Palomar Observatory of the California Institute of Technology. This project will require four years to photomap the vast reaches of space, and will provide the first sky atlas for observa tories all over the world. In 1948 The Society sent out seven expeditions to study the eclipse of the sun along a 5,320-mile arc from Burma to the Aleutians. The fruitful results helped link geodetic surveys of North America and Asia. The Society granted $25,00ooo, and in addition $75,000 was contributed by individual members, to help preserve for the American people the finest of the giant sequoia trees in the Giant Forest of Sequoia National Park of California. One of the world's largest icefields and glacial systems out side the polar regions was discovered in Alaska and Yukon by Bradford Washburn while exploring for The Society and the Harvard Institute of Exploration, 1938. Copyright, 1952. by National Geographic Societ 1 . Washington. D. C. International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reservados todos los derechos. Printed in U. S. A. Entered at the Post Office at Washington, D. C. . as Second Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103. Act of October . 1917. authorized July 1, 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.