National Geographic : 1952 Jul
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON 6, D. C . GILBERT GROSVENOR, President JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice-President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer THOMAS W. McKNEW, Secretary HERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer VERNON II. BREWSTER, Assistant Secretary IIILLEARY F. HOSKINSON, Assistant Treasurer MELVIN M. PAYNE, Assistant Secretary LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman, Research Committee KURTZ M. HANSON, Assistant Secretary ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research Committee ROBERT E. DOYLE, Assistant Secretary SIBYL PECK, Assistant to the President MABEL F. STRIDER, Personnel Officer STAFF OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor Senior Assistant Editor MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editors FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH LEO A. BORAH F. BARROWS COLTON MASON SUTHERLAND Editorial Staff GEORGE W. LONG ANDREW H. BROWN WILLIAM A. KINNEY ROBERT LESLIE CONLY BEVERLEY M. BOWIE LONNELLE AIKMAN STUART E. JONES ALLAN C. FISHER, JR. LEONARD J. GRANT Foreign Editorial Staff MAYNARD OWEN WILLIAMS, Chief W. ROBERT MOORE LUIS MARDEN HOWELL WALKER Research Staff INEZ B. RYAN MARGARET G. BLEDSOE GEORGE C. MARSHALL General of the Army Formerly Secretary of Defense CURTIS E. LEMAY General, U. S. Air Force, Commanding Strategic Air Command LEROY A. LINCOLN Chairman of the Board Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director, National Bureau of Standards, Retired H. RANDOLPH MADDOX President, Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies ELISHA HANSON Lawyer and Naturalist GEORGE R. PUTNAM Commissioner of Lighthouses, Retired FRANKLIN L. FISHER Illustrations Editor National Geographic Magazine Chief Cartographer JAMES M. DARLEY Cartographic Staff NEWMAN BUMSTEAD, Asst. Chief CHARLES E. RIDDIFORD WELLMAN CHAMBERLIN GEORGE CROSSETTE ATHOS D. GRAZZINI JOIN J. BREIHM RALPH E. McALEER APPHIA HOLDSTOCK RICHARD DARLEY School Service LEONARD C. ROY, Chief RALPH GRAY News Service WINDSOR P. BOOTH, Chief JOHN R. HOOPES Advertising RAYMOND W. WELCH, Director GILBERT G. LA GORCE, Asst. Director Staff Artist and Naturalist WALTER A. WEBER Librarian ESTHER ANN MANION BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V. FLEMING President and Chairman of the Board, Riggs National Bank ALEXANDER WETMORE Secretary, Smithsonian Institution HUGH L. DRYDEN Director, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics WILLIAM V. PRATT Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired JUAN T. TRIPPE President, Pan American Airways WILLIAM E. WRATHER Director, U. S . Geological Survey DAVID FAIRCHILD Special Agricultural Explorer, U. S. Department of Agriculture GILBERT GROSVENOR Editor of the National Geographic Magazine MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Senior Assistant Editor National Geographic Magazine Illustrations Editor FRANKLIN L. FISHER Illustrations Staff WALTER M. EDWARDS KIP ROSS ANDREW POGGENPOHL EDWARD C. FERRIDAY, JR. DEE JAMES ANDELLA HERBERT S. WILBURN, JR. ROBERT J. REYNOLDS CARO STILLWELL, Librarian Photographic Laboratory EDWIN L. WISHlERI), Chief RICHARD H. STEWART, Asst. Chief FRANK II. WILDUNG Staff Photographers B. ANTHONY STEWART WILLARI) R. CULVER J. BAYLOR ROBERTS VOLKMAR WENTZEL JUSTIN LOCKE ROBERT F. SISSON JOHN E. FLETCHER Film Editor JOSEPH M. RIDEOUT CHARLES F. KETTERING Consultant and Director General Motors Corporation LLOYD B. WILSON Formerly Chairman of the Board Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies L. O. COLBERT Rear Admiral, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Retired ERNEST E. NORRIS Chairman of the Board Southern Railway Company JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE Associate Editor of the National Geographic Magazine EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral, Construction Corps U. S. Navy, Retired; President Air Transport Association THOMAS W. McKNEW Secretary National Geographic Society ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which it was founded sixty four years ago, the National Geographic Society publishes the National Geographic Magazine monthly. All receipts are in vested in The Magazine itself or expended directly to promote geographic knowledge. Articles and photographs are desired. For material The Magazine uses, generous remuneration is made. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys con stantly being made, The Society has sponsored more than 100 scientific expeditions, some of which required years of field work to achieve their objectives. The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back the historic horizons of the southwestern United States to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus crossed the Atlantic. By dating the ruins of the vast communal dwellings in that region, The Society's researches solved secrets that had puzzled historians for three hundred years. In Mexico The Society and the Smithsonian Institution, January 16, 1939, discovered the oldest work of man in the Americas for which we have a date. This slab of stone is en graved in Mayan characters with a date which means Novem ber 4, 291 B. c. (Spinden Correlation). It antedates by 200 years anything heretofore dated in America, and reveals a great center of early American culture, previously unknown. On November 11, 1935, in a flight sponsored jointly by the National Geographic Society and the U. S . Army Air Corps, the world's largest balloon, Explorer II, ascended to the world altitude record of 72,395 feet. Capt. Albert W. Stevens and Capt. Orvil A. Anderson took aloft in the gondola nearly a ton of scientific instruments, and obtained results of extraordinary value. A notable undertaking in the history of astronomy was launched in 1949 by The Society in cooperation with the Palomar Observatory of the California Institute of Technology. This project will require four years to plotomap the vast reaches of space, and will provide the first sky atlas for observa tories all over the world. In 1948 The Society sent out seven expeditions to study the eclipse of the sun along a 5,320-mile are from Burma to the Aleutians. The fruitful results helped link geodetic surveys of North America and Asia. The Society granted $25,000, and in addition $75,000 was contributed by individual members, to help preserve for the American people the finest of the giant sequoia trees in the Giant Forest of Sequoia National Park of California. One of the world's largest icefields and glacial systems out side the polar regions was discovered in Alaska and Yukon by Bradford Washburn while exploring for The Society and the Harvard Institute of Exploration, 1938. Copyright. 1952 by National Geographic Society,Washington, D. C. International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reservados todos los derechos. Printed in U.S .A. Entered at the Post Office at Washington, D. C.. as Second Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103. Act of October 3. 1917, authorized July 1, 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.