National Geographic : 1952 Oct
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON 6, D. C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer HERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer IILLEAIRY F. IIOSKINSON, Assistant Treasurer LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman, Research Colmmittee ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairiman, Research Committee SIBYL PECK, Assistant to the President JOIN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice-President THOMAS W. McKNEWV, Secretary VERNON HI. BREWSTER, Assistant Secretary MELVIN MI. PAYNE, Assistant Secretary KURTZ M. HANSON, Assistant Secretary ROBERT E. DOYLE, Assistant Secretary MABEL F. STRIDER, Personnel Officer GEORGE C. MARSHALL General of the Army Formerly Secretary of Defense CURTIS E. LEMAY General, U. S. Air Force, Conmmanding Strategic Air Command LEROY A. LINCOLN Chairman of the Board Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. LYMAN J. IRIGGOS Director, National Bureau of Standards, Retired H. RANDOILPH MADDOX President, Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies ELISHA HlANSON Lawyer and Naturalist GEORGE R. PUTNAM Commissioner of Lighthouses, Retired FRANKLIN L. FISHER Illustrations Editor National Geographic Magazine BOARD OF TRUSTEES IROBERT V. FLEMING President and Chairman of the Board Riggs National Bank ALEXANDER WETMORE Secretary, Smithsonian Institution IIlGH L. DRYDEN Director, National Advisory Coimiiittee for Aeronautics WILLIAM V. PRArTT Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired JUAN T. TRIPPE President, Pan American Airways WIILIAM E'. RATHER Director, U. S. Geological Survey D)AVID FAIRCHILD Special Agricultural Explorer U. S. Departllent of Agriculture GILBERTR T (GROSVENOR Editor of the National Geographic Magazine MELVILLE BELL CGROSVENOR Senior Assistant Editor National Geographic Magazine CHARGES F. KETTERING Consultant and Director General Motors (orporation LLOYo B. WILSON Formerly Chairman of the Board Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies L. 0. COLBERT Rear Admiral, U. S . Coast and Geodetic Survey, Retired ERNEST E. NORRIS Chairman of the Board Southern Railway Company JOHN )OLIVERLA GORCE Associate Editor of the National Geographic Magazine EM oRY S. LAND Vice Admiral, Construction Corps U. S . Navy, Retired; President Air Transport Association THOMASNV. 1MCKNEW Secretary National Geographic Society ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which it was founded sixty four years ago, the National Geographic Society publishes The National (eographic Magazine monthly. All receipts are in vested in The Magazine itself or expended directly to promote geographic knowledge. Articles and photographs are desired. For material The Magazine uses, generous rilemuneration is made. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys con stantly being made, The Society has sponsored more than 100 scientific expeditions, some of which required years of field work to achieve their objectives. The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back the historic horizons of the southwestern United States to a period nearly eight centuries before (olumbus crossed the Atlantic. By dating the ruins of the vast colmnunal dwellings in that region, The Society's researches solved secrets that had puzzled historians for three hundred years. In Mexico The Society and the Smithsonian Institution, January 16, 1939, discovered the oldest work of man in the Americas for which we have a date. This slah of stone is en graved in Mayan characters witl a date which means Novem ber 4, 291 n. c. (Spinden Correlation). It antedates by 200 years anything heretofore dated in America, and reveals a great center of early American culture, previously unknown. On November 11, 1935, in a flight sponsored jointly by the National Geographic Society and the U. S . Army Air Corps, the world's largest balloon, Explorer II, ascended to the world altitude record of 72,395 feet. Capt. Albert W. Stevens and Capt. Orvil A. Anderson took aloft in the gondola a ton of scien tific instruments and obtained results of extraordinary value. A notable undertaking in tlie history of astronomy was launched in 1949 by Tlhe Society in cooperation with the Palomlar Olbservatory of tlhe California Institute of Technology. This project will require four years to photomnap the vast reaches of space, and will provide the first sky atlas for observa tories all over the world. In 1948 The Society sent seven expeditions to study the sun's eclipse on a 5,320-mile arc from Burima to the Aleutians. The National Geographic Society and the Royal Ontario Museum in 1951 explored and measured newly found Chubb meteor crater, 11,500 feet in diameter, in northern Quebec. The Society granted $25,000, and in addition $75,000 was contributed by individual members, to help preserve for the American people the finest of the giant sequoia trees in the Giant Forest of Sequoia National Park of California. One of the world's largest icefields and glacial systems out side the polar regions was discovered in Alaska and Yukon by Bradford Washburn while exploring for The Society and the Harvard Institute of Exploration, 1938. EXECUTIVE STAFF OF NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE Senior Assistant Editor MIELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editors FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH LEO A. 1oRAH F. BARROWS C'OLTON MASON SUIITHERLAND Editorial Staff GEORGE WV. LONG ANDREW II.BROWN WILLIAM A. INfN EY ROBERT LESLIE ONLY BEVERILEY X. BOWIE LONNELLE.i AIKMAN STUART E. JONES ALLAN C. FISHER, ,lit. LEONARD J. GRANT Foreign Editorial Staff MAYNARD OWEN WILLIAMS, Cl W. ROBERT MOORE LuIs MIARDEN IHoWELL WALKER Research Staff INEZ B. RYAN MARGARET G. BLEDSOE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, ASSOCIATE EDITOR Chief Cartographer JAMES M1. DARLEY Cartographic Staff NEWMAN BUMSTEAD, Asst. Chief CHARLES E. II)DDIORD WELLMAN CHIAMHERLIN (;EORGE CtOSSE'rT'r ATHOS I). G(RAZZINI JOHN J. BREHM RALPH E. MAlALEER Al'PHIA I OLDSTOCK RICIIARD )ARLEY School Service LEONARDI C. ROY, Chief RI( RALPH GRAY News Service WINDSOR I. BOOTH, Chief JOHN R. IOOPES ief Advertising RAYMOND W. WELC, , Director GILBERT G. LA GORCE, Asst. Director Staff Artist and Naturalist WVALTER A. WEBER Librarian ESTHER ANN MANION Illustrations Editor FRANKLIN L. FISHER Illustrations Staff WALTER i. EDWARDS KIiP Ross xANDiREWPOGGEN'tPOHtL EDWARD C(. FERRIIDAY, JR. )EE IJAMiES ANDELLA IIERBERT S. WILBURN, JR. RIOBEiRT J. REYNOLIDS CARO STILLWELL, Librarian I'hoto/raphicLaboratory EoWIN L. IiSHEoRI, (Chief CHARD II. STEWART, Asst. Chief FRANK Ii.\VILDUNG Staff IPhotographers B. ANTHONY STEIWART WILLARD t. (ULVER . 1. BAYiLOR ROBERTS VOLKMAR VE NTZEL JUSTIN LOCKE ROBERT I". SISSON JOHN E. FLETCiHER DONALD McBAIN Film Editor JOSEPH M. RIDEOUT Copyright. 1952, by National Geographic Society.Washington, D. C. International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reservados todos los derecho. Printedin U. S. A. Entered at the Post Office at Washington. D. ( .. as Second Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103, Act of Octobers, 1917. authorized July 1, 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.