National Geographic : 1952 Nov
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON 6, D. C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer HERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer IIILLEARY F. IOSKINSON, Assistant Treasurer LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman, Research Commnittee ALEXANDER WETMIORE, Vice-Chairman, Research Comnuittee SIBYL PECK, Assistant to the President JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice-President THOMAS W. McIKNE\V, Secretary VERNON II. BRE'WSTER, Assistant Secretary MELVIN M. PAYNE, Assistant Secretary KURTZ M. HANSON, Assistant Secretary ROBERT E. DOYLE, Assistant Secretary MABEL F. STRIDER, Personnel Officer GEORGE C. MARSHALL General of the Arlmy Formerly Secretary of Defense CURTIS E. LEMAY General, U. S. Air Force, Commanding Strategic Air Command LEROY A. LINCOLN Chairman of thie Board Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director, National Bureau of Standards, Retired II. ItANDOLPH MADDOX President, Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies ELISHA HANSON Lawyer and Naturalist GEORGE I. PUTNAMr Colinissioner of Lighthouses, Retired FRANKLIN L. FISHER Illustrations Editor National Geographic Magazine BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V. FLEMING President and Chairman of the Board Riggs National Bank ALEXANDER WETMORE Secretary, Smithsonian Institution HUGH L. DRYDEN Director, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics WILLIAM V. PRATT Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired JUAN T. TRIPPE President, Pan American Airways WILLIAM E. RATHER Director, U. S . Geological Survey DAVID FAIRCHILD Special Agricultural Explorer U. S. Department of Agriculture GILBERT GROSVENOR Editor of the National Geographic Magazine MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Senior Assistant Editor National Geographic Magazine CHARLES F. KETTERING Consultant and Director General Motors Corporation LLOYD B. WILSON Formerly Chairman of the Board Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies L. O. COLBERT Rear Admiral, U. S . Coast and Geodetic Survey, Retired ERNEST 1':. NORRIS Chairman of the Board Southern Railway Collpany JOHN OLIVER LA GORE Associate Editor of the National Geographic Magazine EMIORY S. LAND Vice Admiral, Construction Corps U. S . Navy, Retired; President Air Transport Association THOMAS W. MCIKNEW Secretary National Geographic Society ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which it was founded sixty four years ago, the National Geographic Society publishes The National Geographic Magazine monthly. All receipts are in vested in The Magazine itself or expended directly to promote geographic knowledge. Articles and photographs are desired. For material The Magazine uses, generous remuneration is made. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys con stantly being made, The Society has sponsored more than 100 scientific expeditions, some of which required years of field work to achieve their objectives. The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back the historic horizons of the southwestern United States to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus crossed the Atlantic. By dating the ruins of the vast communal dwellings in that region, The Society's researches solved secrets that had puzzled historians for three hundred years. In Mexico The Society and the Smithsonian Institution, January 16, 1939, discovered the oldest work of man in the Americas for which we have a date. This slab of stone is en graved in Mayan characters with a date which means Noveml ber 4, 291 H. c . (Spinden Correlation). It antedates by 200 years anything heretofore dated in America, and reveals a great center of early American culture, previously unknown. On November 11, 1935, in a flight sponsored jointly by the National Geographic Society and the U. S . Army Air Corps, the world's largest balloon, Explorer II, ascended to the world altitude record of 72,395 feet. Capt. Albert W. Stevens and Capt. Orvil A. Anderson took aloft in the gondola a ton of scien tific instruments an obtained results of extraordinary value. A notable undertaking in the history of astronomy was launched in 1949 by The Society in cooperation with tilthe Palomar Observatory of tile California Institute of Technology. This project will require four years to plhotomap the vast reaches of space, and will provide the first sky atlas for observa tories all over the world. In 1948 The Society sent seven expeditions to study the sun's eclipse on a 5,320-mile are from Burma to the Aleutians. The National Geographic Society and the Royal Ontario Museum in 1951 explored and measured newly found Chlubb meteor crater, 11,500 feet in diameter, in northern Quebec. The Society granted S25,000, and in addition $75,000 was contributed by individual members, to help preserve for the American people the finest of the giant sequoia trees in the Giant Forest of Sequoia National Park of California. One of the world's largest icefields and glacial systems out side the polar regions was discovered in Alaska and Yukon by Bradford 'Washburni while exploring for The Society and the Harvard Institute of Exploration, 1938. EXECUTIVE STAFF OF NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE Senior Assistant Editor MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editors FREDERICK G. VOSBaRGHt LEO A. BORAHI F. BARROWS COLTON IASON SUTHERLAND Editorial Staff (GORGEt W'. LO(NG ANDREW II. BROWN WILLIAMt A. KINN:EY ROBERT LESLIE (ONLY B:VIR:ILF.:'Y M. BOWIE LONNELLE AIKMAN STI(AT E. JONES ALL.AN C(.FISHER, JR. LEONARD J. GRANT foreignn EditorialStaff . 1A'NARD OWEN WVILl.IAMS, C(h \V. IOIIEItTMoORiE LIlS Al.RDEN IHOWELL W\VAI.KER Research Staff INEIz B. RYAs MAROAlEtT G. BLEDSOE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORE, ASSOCIATE EDITOR Chief Cartographer JAMES I. DARLEY CartographicStaff NEWMAN BUMSTEAD, Asst. Chief CHARLES E. RIDDIORD W ELLMAN CIHAIMBERLIN GEORGE. CROSSETTI : ATHOS D. G(HAZZIx JotH J. HBREH RALPH E. AlcALEER APPIIIA IOLDSTOCK RICHARD D)ARILEY School Service LEONARI C(. ROY, Chief rI( RALPH GRAY .V News Serrice WINDSOR P. BOOTH, Chief .JoHN R. IlooPirs ief Adcertisil/ RIAYMOND \'. W . ELCH.I)irector G(ILBXERT G. LA (ORC.:, Asst. Director Staff .1rltis and Naturalisti WAi.rERt A. VWEE Librarian ESTIiHE:R ANN A ANION Illustrations Editor FRANKLIN L. I'ISHER Illustrations Staff \VALI.TEFR iA. EDWAIS KIP Ross ANDREW POGGENPOHL EDWARD C. IFERIDAY, .IR. DEE JAMES ANDELLA IIFRBERTr S. WiLBuRN, JR. ROBERT .1. REYNOLDS CARO STILLWE:LL, Librarian l'hoographic Laboraiory EDWIN L. WIsiEtRD), (Chief CHARDII. STEWART, Asst. (htief FRANK IH. VILDI'NG Staff P'lotograp/l hrs It. AN'ItONY St'lWAT. l \VILI.ARD R . (:'l:l,\ :R .1. BAYLOR R1oB trI'S V(oLKMu WE \ NTZEl, .1JUSTI N LOK I': l on:1'rT l' . SISSON JRotls l'. IF.,:TcEl t DONALDI. I:ctAIN Film Editor JOSEI'H MA. RIDEOUT I' Copyright. 1952. by National Geographic Society.Washington. D .C . International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reservados todos los derechos. Printed in U. S. A. Entered at the Post Office at Washington. D. C. as Second Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postagee provided for in Sec. 1103. Act of October 3. 1917. authorized July 1, 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States Patent Office. 5a ca Registrada.