National Geographic : 1952 Dec
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON 6, D. C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer IIERERTI A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer IIILLEAR Y F. IIOSKINSON, Assistant Treasurer LYMAN J. BRI(;(GS, Chairman, Research Commllittee ALEXANDI)IR \ETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research Comnimittee SIBYL PECK, Assistant to the President JOIN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice-President THIOMAS W. McKNEW, Secretary VERNON II. BREWSTER, Assistant Secretary MELVIN I. PAYNE, Assistant Secretary K'RTZ M. IIANSON, Assistant Secretary ROBERT E. I)OYLE, Assistant Secretary MABEL F. STItIDER, Personnel Officer GEORGE C. MARSHALL General of tile Army Formerly Secretary of Defense CURTIS E. LEMAY General, U. S. Air Force, Commanding Strategic Air Comnand LEROY A. LINCOLN Chairman of the Board Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director, National Bureau of Standards, Retired II. RANDOLPH MADDOX President, (Chesaeake and Potomac Telephone Co)mpanies ELISIIA IANSON Lawyer and Naturalist GEORGE R. PUTNAM Commissioner of Lighthouses, Retired FRANKLIN L. FISHER Illustrations Editor National Geographic Magazine BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V. FIEMING President and Chairman of the Board Riggs National Bank ALEXANDER WETMORE Secretary, Smithsonian Institution I IUGH L. I)RYDE N Director, National Advisory Conimmittee for Aeronautics WILLIAM V. PRATT Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired JUAN T. TRIPPED President, Pan American Airways WILLIAM E. VRA'tHtE Director, U. S . Geological Survey DAVID FAIR(HIILD Special Agricultural Explorer U. S . Department of Agriculture (hLBT,,r (GROSv'NOR Editor of the National Geographic Magazine iMELVILLE BIELL GROSVENOR Senior Assistant Editor National Geographic Magazine CHARLES F. KETTERING Consultant and DIirector General Motors Corporation LLOYD B. WILSON Formerly Chairman of the Board Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone (ompanies L. (. COLBERT Rear Admiral. U . S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Retired ERNEST E. NORRIS Chairman of the Board Southern Railway Comlupatny JOHN ()LIVER IiA (GORCE Associate Editor of the National Geographic Magazine IxMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral, Construction Corps U. S. Navy, Retired; President Air Transport Association THOMAS W. MIcNEW Secretary National Geographic Society ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which it was founded sixty- On November 11, 1!)35,in a flight sponsored jointly by the four years ago, the National geographic c Society publishes The National Geographic Society and the I. S. Army Air Corps, National (eographic Magazine monthly. All receipts are in- the world's largest balloon. Explorer II, ascended to the world vested in The Magazine itself or expended directly to promote altitude record of 72,395 feet. Capt. Albert W. Stevens and geographic knowledge. Capt. Orvil A. Anderson took aloft in the gondola a ton of scien Articles and photographs are desired. For material The tific instruments and obtained results of extraordinary value. Magazine uses, generous remuneration is made. A notable undertaking in the history of a stronolny was launched ill 1949 by The Society in cooperation with the In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys con- Palomar Observatory of the California Institute of Technology. stantly being made, The Society has sponsored more than 100 This project will require four years to photomap the vast scientific expeditions, some of which required years of field reaches of space, and will provide the first sky atlas for observa work to achieve their objectives, tories all over the world. The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back the In 1948 Tlie Society sent seven expeditions to study the sun's historic horizons of the southwestern United States to a period eclipse on a 5,320-mile arc from Burma to the Aleutians. nearly eight centuries before Columbus crossed the Atlantic. Tihe National Geographic Society and the Royal Ontario By dating the ruins of the vast communal dwellings in that Museum in 19.51 explored and measured newly found Chubb region, The Society's researches solved secrets that had puzzled meteor crater, 11,500 feet in diameter, in northern Quebec. historians for three hundred years. The Society granted $25,000, and in addition $75,000 was In Mexico The Society and the Smithsonian Institution, contributed by individual members, to help preserve for the January 10, 11939, discovered the oldest work of man in the American people the finest of the giant sequoia trees in the Americas for which we have a date. This slat of stone is en- Giant Forest of Sequoia National Park of California. graved in Mayan characters with a date which means Novelm- One of the world's largest icefields and glacial systems out ber 4, 291 n. c. (Spinden Correlation). It antedates by 200 side the polar regions was discovered in Alaska and Yukon by years anything heretofore dated in America, and reveals a Bradford Washburn while exploring for The Society and the great center of early American culture, previously unknown. larvard Institute of Exploration, 1938. EXECUTIVE STAFF OF NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE Senior Assistant Editor MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editors FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH LEO A. BORAH 1. BARROWS COLTON MASON SUT'riERLAND Editorial Staff GEORGE W. LONG( ANDREW II. BROWN WILLIAM A. KINNEY RIOBERT IESLIE: (ONLY BEVERLEY MI. BOWIE LONNELLE AIKMAN STUART E. JON:ES ALLAN C. FISHFR, JR. LEONARD J. GRANT Foreign Editorial Staff MAYNARD OWIEN WILLIAMS, Cl W. ROBEItTr MOORE: Lis IARDEN HOWELL WALKER Research Staff INEZ B. IYAN MIARGAR.ET G. BLEDSOE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, ASSOCIATE EDITOR Chief Cartographer JAMES M. DARLEY CartographicStaff NEWMAN BUMS'TEAD, Asst. Chief CHARLES E. RIDDIFORD WELLMAN CHAMBERLIN GEORGE CROSSETTE ATHos I). GRAZZINI JOHN J. BREHM RALPH E. MCALEER APPHIA IOLDSTOCK RICHARD DARLEY School Service RI RALPH GRAY News Service WINDsoR P. BOOTH, Chief JOHN R. IloOPES Advertising l lef RAYMOND W. WELCH, Director GILBERT G. LA GORCE, Asst. Director Staff Artist and Naturalist WALTER A. WEBER Librarian ESTHER ANN IMANION Illustrations Editor FRANKLIN L. FISHER Illustrations Staff WALTER M. IEDWARDS KIP Ross ANDRi'W PO(;: EN PO'iL EDWARD C. FERRtIDAY, JR. I)EE JAME ANI)ELLA II ER.RTS. WILBInRN, JR. OBE1:RT .1. REYNOLDS CARO STILLWELL, Librarian I'hotog(raphic Laboratory EDWIN L. \V'ISIERD, (Cief CHARD 11. S'EWART, Asst. Chief FRANK II. WILDUNG Staff Photographers B. ANTHONY S'TEVWAR WILLARD R. CULVER J. BAYLOR RBERTS VOLKMAR WENTZEL JUSTIN ILOCKE ROBERrT F. SISSON JoHN E. FLErTCHER DONALD MIBCAIN Fil m Editor JOSEPH MI. RIDEOUT Copyright. 1962. by National Geographic Society.Washington. D.C . International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reservados todo s los derechos. Printed in U.S.A. Entered at the Post Office at Washington. I). C(.. as Second Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103. Act of October 3, 1917. authorized July 1. 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.