National Geographic : 1953 Mar
282 Fort Sumter Burns, War Begins: a Charleston Hotel Mural Recalls the Battle South Carolina suffered enormous losses in what it calls the "Confederate War." Economic ruin endured for years, but parallel revolutions in industry and agriculture restored prosperity. Southern forces bombarded the Union's Fort Sumter April 12-13, 1861, and forced its surrender. Alfred Hutty's painting shows gray-clad troops in Fort Johnson (foreground) manning their guns. A Confederate floating battery (right) joins the fray. April day in 1670, after a rough voyage in which two vessels were wrecked, a band of about 140 Englishmen, a few Scots and Irish, and at least three Negro slaves planted the first permanent white settlement in South Carolina. They had intended settling at Port Royal, some 50 miles to the south, where, more than a century earlier, French Huguenots under Jean Ribaut had established a short-lived colony. But "a very ingenious Indian," the cacique of the Kiawahs, persuaded Gov. William Sayle and his council that the west bank of the Ashley River, close to where the Kiawahs lived, was a better location. Ten years later the town was moved to its present site: the peninsula between the Ashley and Cooper Rivers, which come together at its tip to form a spacious, landlocked harbor. To this bustling village, in spite of Indian troubles and forays by the Spaniards, flocked new colonists-planters from Barbados, many rich in money and slaves; French Huguenots, destined for a major role in Carolina; German, Scottish, and Irish dissenters; and refugees from the rigors of New England's climate and religious zeal. Two remarkable men launched the State and indeed the whole deep South-upon the path it was long to follow. They were Anthony Ashley Cooper, Earl of Shaftesbury, ablest of a group of Cavalier Lords Proprietors to whom Charles II gave the tremendous wilder ness known as Carolina; and Henry Wood ward, an adventurous and versatile young Englishman. Landed Gentry Dominated Colony Shaftesbury believed that the old English society, built around an order of landed gentry, was the soundest social system ever devised. With the help of the philosopher John Locke, he planned the new colony of Carolina in accord with that conviction. Baronies and seigniories were laid out around Charleston (first called Charles Town or Charlestown), and a landed nobility was created, with the titles of landgrave and cacique. To each landgrave four baronies of 12,000 acres each were allowed, and to each cacique two baronies. On their broad acres these privileged folk dwelt with feudal spaciousness and authority. Titles disappeared when, after half a cen tury, the rule of the Lords Proprietors ended and the colony was taken over by the Crown. But the landgrave and cacique system ex panded easily and naturally into the "planter class," which was to dominate the State for nearly two centuries.