National Geographic : 1953 Jun
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON 6, D. C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer HERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer IIILLEARY F. IIOSKINSON, Assistant Treasurer LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman, Research Committee ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research Committee SIBYL PECK, Assistant to the President JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice-President THOMAS W. McKNEW, Secretary VERNON II. BREWSTER, Assistant Secretary MELVIN M. PAYNE, Assistant Secretary KURTZ M. IIANSON, Assistant Secretary ROBERT E. DOYLE, Assistant Secretary MABEL F. STRIDER, Personnel Officer GEORGE C. MARSHALL General of the Army Formerly Secretary of Defense CURTIS E. LEMAY General, U. S . Air Force, Commanding Strategic Air Command LEROY A. LINCOLN Chairman of the Board Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director, National Bureau of Standards, Retired H. RANDOLPH MADDOX President, Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies DAVID FAIR(HILD Special Agricultural Explorer U. S. Department of Agriculture GEORGE R. PUTNAM Commissioner of Lighthouses, Retired FRANKLIN L. FISHER Illustrations Editor National Geographic Magazine BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V. FLEMING President and Chairman of the Board Riggs National Bank ALEXANDER WETMORE Research Associate Smithsonian Institution HUGH L. )RYDEN Director, National Advisory Conmittee for Aeronautics WILLIAM V. PRATT Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired JUAN T. TRIPPE President, Pan American Airways WILLIAM E. WRATHER Director, U. S . Geological Survey ELISHA HANSON Lawyer and Naturalist GILBERT GROSVENOR Editor of the National Geographic Magazine MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Senior Assistant Editor National Geographic Magazine CHARLES F. KETTERING Consultant and Director General Motors Corporation LLOYD B. WILSON Formerly Chairman of the Board Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies L. O. COLBERT Rear Admiral U. S . Coast and Geodetic Survey, Retired ERNEST E. NORRIS Chairman of the Board Southern Railway Company JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE Associate Editor of the National Geographic Magazine EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral, Construction Corps U. S. Navy, Retired; President Air Transport Association THOMAS W. MCKNEW Secretary National Geographic Society ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which it was founded sixty- On November 11, 1935, in a flight sponsored jointly by the five years ago, the National Geographic Society publishes The National Geographic Society and the U. S. Army Air Corps, National Geographic Magazine monthly. All receipts are in- the world's largest balloon, Explorer II, ascended to the world vested in The Magazine itself or expended directly to promote altitude record of 72,395 feet. Capt. Albert W. Stevens and geographic knowledge. Capt. Orvil A. Anderson took aloft in the gondola a ton of scien Articles and photographs are desired. For material The tific instruments and obtained results of extraordinary value. Magazine uses, generous remuneration is made. vA notable undertaking in the history of astronomy was launched in 1949 by The Society in cooperation with the In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys con- Palomar Observatory of the California Institute of Teclhnology. stantly being made, The Society has sponsored more than 100 This project will require four years to photomap the vast scientific expeditions, some of which required years of field reaches of space, and will provide the first sky atlas for observa work to achieve their objectives. tories all over the world. The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back the In 1948 The Society sent seven expeditions to study the Sun's historic horizons of the southwestern United States to a period eclipse on a 5,320-mile arc from Burma to the Aleutians. nearly eight centuries before Columbus crossed the Atlantic. The National Geographic Society and the Royal Ontario By dating the ruins of the vast communal dwellings in that Museum in 1951 explored and measured newly found Chubb region, The Society's researches solved secrets that had puzzled meteor crater, 11,500 feet in diameter, in northern Quebec. historians for three hundred years. The Society granted $25,000, and in addition $75,000 was In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Institution, contributed by individual members, to help preserve for the January 16, 1939, discovered the oldest work of man in the American people the finest of the giant sequoia trees in the Americas for which we have a date. This slab of stone is en- Giant Forest of Sequoia National Park of California. graved in Mayan characters with a date which means Novem- One of the world's largest icefields and glacial systems out ber 4, 291 B. c . (Spinden Correlation). It antedates by 200 side the polar regions was discovered in Alaska and Yukon by years anything heretofore dated in America, and reveals a Bradford Washburn while exploring for The Society and the great center of early American culture, previously unknown. Harvard Institute of Exploration, 1938. EXECUTIVE STAFF OF NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE Senior Assistant Editor MELVILLE BELL GROBVENOR Assistant Editors FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH LEO A. BORAH F. BARROWS COLTON MASON SUTHERLAND Editorial Staff GEORGE W. LONG ANDREW H. BROWN ROBERT LESLIE CONLY BEVERLEY M. BOWIE LONNELLE AIKMAN STUART E. JONES ALLAN C. FISHER, JR. LEONARD J. GRANT ROSE T. MACBRYDE, Administ Foreign Editorial Staff MAYNARD OWEN WILLIAMS, Cl W. ROBERT MOORE LUIS MARDEN IIOWELL WALKER Editorial Research INEZ B. RYAN MARGARET G. BLEDSOE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE. ASSOCIATE EDITOR Chief Cartographer JAMES MI. DARLEY CartographicStaff NEWMAN BUMSTEAD, Asst. Chief CHARLES E. RIDDIFORD WELLMAN CHAMBERLIN ATHOS D. GRAZZINI JOHN J. BREHM RALPH E. MCALEER APPHIA IIOLDSTOCK RICHARD DARLEY School Service RALPH GRAY, Chief WILLIAM A. KINNEY News Service RI WINDSOR P. BOOTH, Chief ration JOHN R. HIOOPES Geographic Research lief GEORGE CROSSETTE Advertising GILBERT G. LA GORCE, Director Staff Artist and Naturalist WALTER A. WEBER Librarian ESTHER ANN MANION IllustrationsEditor FRANKLIN L. FISHER Assistant Illustrations Editor WALTER M. EDWARDS Illustrations Staff KIP Ross ANDREW POGGENPOIIL EDWARD C. FERRIDAY, JR. DEE JAMES ANDELLA IIERBERT S. WILBURN, JR. ROBERT J. REYNOLDS CARO STILLWELL, Librarian PhotographicLaboratory EDWIN L. WISHERD, Chief CHARD H. STEWART, Asst. Chief FRANK H. WILDUNG Staff Photographers B. ANTHONY STEWART WILLARD R. CULVER J. BAYLOR ROBERTS VOLKMAR WENTZEL ROBERT F. SISSON JOHN E. FLETCHER DONALD MCBAIN Film Editor JOSEPH M. RIDEOUT LI Copyright. 1953. by National Geographic Society. Washington. D. C. International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reservados todos los derechos. Printed in U. S. A. Entered at the Post Office at Washington. D .C ., as Second Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103. Act of October 3. 1917 authorized July 1, 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.