National Geographic : 1953 Dec
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON 6, D. C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer IIERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer IIILLEARY F. HIOSKINSON, Assistant Treasurer LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman, Research Committee ALEXANI)ER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research Committee SIBYL PECK. Assistant to the President JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice-President THOMAS W. McKNEW, Secretary VERNON 11. BREWSTER, Assistant Secretary MELVIN M. PAYNE, Assistant Secretary KURTZ M. HANSON, Assistant Secretary ROBERT E. DOYLE, Assistant Secretary HERBERT T. HENDERSON, Personnel Officer GEORGE C. MARSHALL General of the Army Formerly Secretary of Defense CURTIS E. LEMAY General, U. S. Air Force, Comnnanding Strategic Air Command LEROY A. LINCOLN Chairman of the Board Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director, National Bureau of Standards, Retired H. RANDOLPH MADDOX President, Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies DAVID FAIRCHILD Special Agricultural Explorer U. S. Department of Agriculture ELISHA HANSON Lawyer and Naturalist WILLIAM V. PRATT Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V. FLEMING President and Chairman of the Board Riggs National Bank ALEXANDER WETMORE Research Associate Smithsonian Institution HUGH L. DRYDEN Director, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics RICHARD E. BYRD Rear Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired JUAN T. TRIPPE President, Pan American Airways WILLIAM E. WRATHER Director, U. S . Geological Survey GILBERT GROSVENOR Editor of the National Geographic Magazine MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Senior Assistant Editor National Geographic Magazine CHARLES F. KETTERING Consultant and Director General Motors Corporation LLOYD B. WILSON Formerly Chairman of the Board Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies L. 0. COLBERT Rear Admiral U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Retired ERNEST E. NORRIS Retired President Southern Railway System JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE Associate Editor of the National Geographic Magazine EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral, Construction Corps U. S . Navy, Retired; President Air Transport Association THOMAS W. MCKNEW Secretary National Geographic Society ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which it was founded sixty five years ago, the National Geographiq Society publishes the National Geographic Magazine monthly. All receipts are in vested in The Magazine itself or expended directly to promote geographic knowledge. Articles and photographs are desired. For material The Magazine uses, generous remuneration is made. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys con stantly being made, The Society has sponsored more than 100 scientific expeditions, some of which required years of field work to achieve their objectives. The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back the historic horizons of the southwestern United States to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus. By dating the ruins of vast communal dwellings in that region, The Society's re searches solved secrets that had puzzled istrias for 300 years. In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Institution, January 16, 1939, discovered the oldest dated work of man in the Americas. This stone is engraved, in Mayan characters, November 4, 291 B. c. (Spinden Correlation). It antedates by 200 years anything else dated in America, and reveals a great center of early American culture, previously unknown. On November 11, 1935, the stratosphere flight of the world's largest balloon, Explorer II, sponsored by The Society and the U. S . Army Air Corps, reached a world-record altitude of 72,395 feet. Capts. Albert W. Stevens and Orvil A. Anderson took aloft a ton of scientific instruments and obtained results of extraordinary value. A notable undertaking in the history of astronomy was launched in 1949 by The Society and Palomar Observatory of the California Institute of Technology. This project will photomap the vast reaches of space and provide for observa tories all over the world the most extensive sky atlas yet made. In 1948 The Society sent seven expeditions to study the sun's eclipse on a 5,320-mille arc from Burma to the Aleutians. A Greek cargo ship sunk in the Mediterranean 2,100 years ago was found and investigated in 1953 by the National Geo graphlic Society-Calypso Marine Expedition led by Comman dant J. - Y. Cousteau of the French Navy. The National Geographic Society and the Royal Ontario Museum in 1951 explored and measured newly found Chubb meteor crater, 11,500 feet in diameter, in northern Quebec. The Society and individual members contributed $100,000 to help preserve for the American people the finest of Cali fornia's sequoias, the Giant Forest in Sequoia National Park. One of the world's largest icefields and glacial systems out side the polar regions was discovered in Alaska and Yukon by Bradford Washburn while exploring for The Society and the Harvard Institute of Exploration in 1938. EXECUTIVE STAFF OF NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE Senior Assistant Editor MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editors FREDERICK G. VOSBURGII LEO A. BORAH F. BARROWS COTTON MASON SUTHERLAND GEORGE W. LONG Editorial Staff ANDREW H. BROWN ROBERT LESLIE CONLY BEVERLEY M. BOWIE LONNELLE AIKMAN STUART E. JONES ALLAN C. FISHER, JR. LEONARD J. GRANT KENNETH F. WEAVER JOHN R. IOOPES ROSE T. MACBRYDE, Administr Foreign Editorial Staff W. ROBERT MOORE, Chief LUIS GARDEN FRANC SHORT IIOWELL. WALKER Editorial Research INEZ B. RYAN, Chief M\AIARGARET G. BLEDSOE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE. ASSOCIATE EDITOR Chief Cartographer JAMES M. DARLEY CartographicStaff NEWMAN BUMSTEAD, Asst. Chief CHARLES E. RIDDIFORD WELLMAN CHAMBERLIN ATHOS D. GRAZZINI JOHN J. BREHM RALPH E. McALEER APPHIA HOLDSTOCK RICHARD DARLEY School Service RALPH GRAY, Chief WILLIAM A. KINNEY RI( News Service WINDSOR P. BOOTH. Chief ation NATHANIEL T. KENNEY SAMUEL W. MATTHEWS Geographic Research GEORGE CROSSETTE A dertising GILBERT G. LA GORCE, Director Librarian ESTHER ANN MANION Assistant Illustrations Editor WALTER M. EDWARDS Illustrations Staff KIP Ross ANDREW POGGENPOHL EDWARD C. FERRIDAY, JR. DEE JAMES ANDELLA HERBERT S. WILBURN, JR. ROBERT J. REYNOLDS CARO STILLWELL, Librarian Staff Artist and Naturalist WALTER A. WEBER PhotographicLaboratory EDWIN L. WISHERD, Chief CHARD 1. STEWART, Asst. Chief NEWTON V. BLAKESLEE Staff Photographers B. ANTHONY STEWART WILLARD R. CULVER J. BAYLOR ROBERTS VOLKMAR WENTZEL ROBERT F. SISSON JOHN E. FLETCHER DONALD McBAIN DAVID S. BOYER Film Editor JOSEPH M. RIDEOUT Copyright. 1953, by National Geographic Society. Washington, D. C. International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reservdos todos los derechos. Printed in U. S. A. Entered at the Post Office at Washington. D. C., as Second Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103, Act of October 3. 1917 authorized July 1. 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.