National Geographic : 1954 Jan
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON 6, D. C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer IIERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer IIILLEARY F. IIOSKINSON, Assistant Treasurer LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman, Research Conmmittee ALEXANIER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research Conmmittee SIBYL PECK, Assistant to the President JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice-President THOMAS W. McKNEW, Secretary VERNON II. BREWSTER, Assistant Secretary MELVIN M. PAYNE, Assistant Secretary KURTZ M. HANSON, Assistant Secretary ROBERT E. DOYLE, Assistant Secretary HERBERT T. IIENI)ERSON, Personnel Officer EORG(;E C. .MARSHALL General of the Armny Formerly Secretary of Defense CURTIS E. IAE IAY General, U. S. Air Force, Commanding Strategic Air (ommand LEROY A. LINCOLN Chairman of the Board Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. LYMAN J. hRI(;(;S Director. National Bureau of Standards, Retired II. RANDOL|'H 'MADOX President, Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Comnpanics DAVID FAIRCHILD Special Agricultural Explorer U. S . Department of Agriculture EIIISIA H ANSON Lawyer and Naturalist WILLIAM V. PRATT Admiral, U. S . Navy, Retired BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V. FLEMING President and Chairman of the Board Riggs National Bank ALEXANDER W ETMORE Research Associate Smithsonian Institution HUGH I,. DRYDEN Director, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics RICHARD E. BYRD Rear Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired JUAN T. TRIPPE President, Pan American Airways WILL,,IAM E. RATHER Director, U. S. Geological Survey GILBERT GROSVENOR Editor of the National Geographic Magazine MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Senior Assistant Editor National Geographic Magazine CHARLES F. LETTERING Consultant and Director General Motors Corporation LLOYD B. WILSON Formerly Chairman of the Board Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies L. 0. COLBERT Rear Admiral, I. S . Coast and Geodetic Survey, Retired ERNEST E. NORRIS Retired President Southern Railway System JOHN OLIVER LA (ORCE Associate Editor of the National Geographic Magazine MEMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral, Construction Corps U. S . Navy, Retired; President Air Transport Association THOMAS W. M(:INEW Secretary National Geographic Society ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which it was founded sixty six years ago, the National Geographic Society publishes the National Geographic Magazine monthly. All receipts are in vested in The Magazine itself or expended directly to promote geographic knowledge. Articles and photographs are desired. For material The MIagazine luses, generous remuneration is made. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys con stantly being made, The Society has sponsored more than 100 scientific expeditions, some of which required years of field work to achieve their objectives. The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back the historic horizons of the southwestern United States to a period nearly eight centuries before Columiibs. By dating the ruins of vast communal dwellings in that region, Tie Society's re searches solved secrets that ad puzzled historians for 300 years. In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Institution, January 16, 1939, discovered the oldest dated work of man in tlhe Americas. This stone is engraved, in Mayan characters, November 4, 291 B. C. (Spinden Correlation). It antedates by 200 years anything else dated in America, and reveals a great center of early American culture, previously unknown. On November 11, 1935, the stratosphere flight of the world's largest balloon, Explorer I1, sponsored by The Society and the U. S . Army Air Corps, reached a world-record altitude of 72,39.5 feet. Capts. Albert W. Stevens and Orvil A. Anderson took aloft a ton of scientific instruments and obtained results of extraordinary value. A notable undertaking in tlhe history of astronomy was launched in 1949 by The Society and Palomar Observatory of the California Institute of Technology. This project will photomap the vast reaches of space and provide for observa tories all over the world the most extensive sky atlas yet made. In 1948 The Society sent seven expeditions to study the sun's eclipse on a 5,320-mlile arc from Bsuria to the Aleutians. A Greek cargo ship sunk in tle Mediterranean 2,200 years ago was found and investigated in 1952-53 by thle National Geographic Society-Calypso Marine Archeological Expedition led by Calpt. J. -Y . (ousteau of the French Navy. Thle National geographicc Society and the Royal Ontario MuseumI in 1951 explored and measured newly found (hubb meteor crater, 11,500 feet in diameter, in northern Quebec. The Society and individual members contributed $100,000 to help preserve for the American people the finest of Cali fornia's sequoias, the Giant Forest in Seqluoia National Park. One of the world's largest icefields and glacial systems out side the polar regions was discovered in Alaska and Yukon by Bradford Washburn while exploring for The Society and tlhe Harvard Institute of Exploration in 1938. EXECUTIVE STAFF OF NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE Senior Assistant Editor MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editors FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH LEO A. BORAFt F. BARROWS COLTON MtASON SUTHERLAND GEORGE W. LONG Editorial Staff ANDREW If. BROWN ROBERT LESLIE CONLY BEVERLEY I. BOWIE LONN ELLE AIKMAN STUART E. JONES ALLAN C. FISHIER, JR. LEONARD J. GRANT KENNETH F. WEAVER JOHN SCOFIrELD JOHN R. IOOPES ROSE T. MACBRYDE Foreign Editorial Staff W. ROBERT MOORE, Chief LUIS MARDEN FRANC SHOR IIOWELL WALKER Librarian ESTHER ANN MANION GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE. ASSOCIATE EDITOR assistantt Illustrations Editor Chief Cartographer \WALTER i1. ElDWARDS JAMES . I)ARLEY IllustrationsStaff CartographicStaff Ki' Hloss NEWMAN BUsISTEAD, Asst. Chief ANDREW PO(mENPL. CHARLES E. RIDDIFORD EDWARD C. lERRHIDAY,lit. WELLMAN CHAMBERLIN D )EE .IAMES ANDELLA ATHO I). GRAZZINI HIERBERT S. WILBURN, JR. JOHN J. BREHM CARO STILLWELL, Librarian RALPH E. MCALEER Staff Artist and Naturalist APPHIA HOLDSTOCK WALTER A. WEBERR RICHARD DARLEY Scool Sirvice I'hotographic Laboratory School Serice EnDWIN L. 's1:HRDH, Chiief RALPH GRAY, Chief RICHARD I1. STEWART, Asst. Chief WILLIAM A. KINNEYNEWTON BLAKESLEE Nel's Service Staff otogaps WINI)SOR P. BOOTH, Chief St. AN / 'hotoNraplitrs NATHANIEL T. KENNEY B. ANTIIONY S'TI'EWART SAMUEL W. MATTHEWS \ sILLARD R. (1CLVER AMUEL W. MATES J. BAYLOR ROBERTS Advertising VOLKMAR \V ENTZELi GILBERT G. LA GORCE, Director RIOBERT F. SISSON Geographic Research JOHN E. FLETCHER GEORGE CROSSETTE DONALD MICBAIN Editorial Research D AVID S. BOYERt INEZ B. RYAN, Chief Film Editor MARGARET G. BLEDBOE JOSEPH 1I. RIDEOUT Copyright. 1953. by National Geographic Society. Washington. D. C. International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reservados todos los derechos. Printedin U. S. A. Entered at the Post Office at Washington, D. C.. as Second Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103. Act of October 3, 1917. authorized July 1, 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.