National Geographic : 1954 Jun
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON 6, D. C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer HERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON, Assistant Treasurer LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman, Research Committee ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research Committee SIBYL PECK, Assistant to the President JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice-President THOMAS W. McKNEW, Secretary VERNON H. BREWSTER, Assistant Secretary MELVIN M. PAYNE, Assistant Secretary KURTZ M. HANSON, Assistant Secretary ROBERT E. DOYLE, Assistant Secretary HERBERT T. HENDERSON, Personnel Officer GEORGE C. MARSHALL General of the Army Formerly Secretary of Defense CURTIS E. LEMAY General, U. S . Air Force, Commanding Strategic Air Command LEROY A. LINCOLN Chairman of the Board Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director, National Bureau of Standards, Retired H. RANDOLPH MADDOX Vice President, American Telephone and Telegraph Company DAVID FAIRCHILD Special Agricultural Explorer U. S. Department of Agriculture ELISHA HANSON Lawyer and Naturalist WILLIAM V. PRATT Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V. FLEMING President and Chairman of the Board Riggs National Bank ALEXANDER WETMORE Research Associate Smithsonian Institution HUGH L. DRYDEN Director, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics RICHARD E. BYRD Rear Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired JUAN T. TRIPPE President, Pan American World Airways WILLIAM E. WRATHER Director, U. S. Geological Survey GILBERT GROSVENOR Editor of the National Geographic Magazine MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Senior Assistant Editor National Geographic Magazine CHARLES F. KETTERING Consultant and Director General Motors Corporation LLOYD B. WILSON Formerly Chairman of the Board Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies L. O. COLBERT Rear Admiral, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Retired ERNEST E. NORRIS Retired President Southern Railway System JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE Associate Editor of the National Geographic Magazine EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired Formerly President Air Transport Association THOMAS W. MCKNEW Secretary National Geographic Society ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which it was founded sixty- U. S . Army Air Corps, reached a world-record altitude of 72,395 six years ago, the National Geographic Society publishes the feet. Capts. Albert W. Stevens and Orvil A. Anderson took National Geographic Magazine monthly. All receipts are in- aloft a ton of scientific instruments and obtained results of vested in The Magazine itself or expended directly to promote extraordinary value. geographic knowledge. A notable undertaking in the history of astronomy was Articles and photographs are desired. For material The launched in 1949 by The Society and Palomar Observatory of Magazine uses, generous reIuneration is made. the California Institute of Technology. This project will In addition to tle editorial and photographic surveys con- photomap the vast reaches of space and provide for observa stantly being made, The Society has sponsored more than 100 tories all over the world the most extensive sky atlas yet made. scientific expeditions, some of which required years of field In 1948 The Society sent seven expeditions to study the sun's work s cien tific expeditions, sobjectives, ch requiredeclipse on a 5,320-mile arc from Burma to the Aleutians. work to achieve their objectives. A Greek cargo ship sunk in the Mediterranean 2,200 years The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back the ago was found and investigated in 1952-53 by the National historic horizons of the southwestern United States to a period Geographic Society-Calypso Marine Archeological Expedition nearly eight centuries before Columbus. By dating the ruins of led by Capt. J. -Y . Cousteau of the French Navy. vast communal dwellings in that region, The Society's re- The National Geographic Society and the Royal Ontario searches solved secrets that had puzzled historians for 300 years. Museum in 1951 explored and measured newly found Chubb In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Institution, meteor crater, 11,500 feet in diameter, in northern Quebec. January 16, 1939, discovered the oldest dated work of man in The Society and individual members contributed $100,000 the Americas. This stone is engraved, in Mayan characters, to help preserve for the American people the finest of Cali November 4, 291 B. c. (Spinden Correlation). It antedates by fornia's sequoias, the Giant Forest in Sequoia National Park. 200 years anything else dated in America, and reveals a great One of the world's largest icefields and glacial systems out center of early American culture, previously unknown, side the polar regions was discovered in Alaska and Yukon by On November 11, 1935, the stratosphere flight of the world's Bradford Washburn while exploring for The Society and the largest balloon, Explorer II, sponsored by The Society and the Harvard Institute of Exploration in 1938. EXECUTIVE STAFF OF NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE Senior Assistant Editor MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editors FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH LEO A. BORAH F. BARROWS COLTON MASON SUTHERLAND GEORGE W. LONG Editorial Staff ANDREW H. BROWN ROBERT LESLIE CONLY BEVERLEY M. BOWIE LONNELLE AIKMAN STUART E. JONES ALLAN C. FISHER, JR. KENNETH F. WEAVER JOHN SCOFIELD NATHANIEL T. KENNEY JOHN R. HOOPES ROSE T. MACBRYDE Foreign Editorial Staff W. ROBERT MOORE, Chief LUIS MARDEN FRANC SHOR HOWELL WALKER Librarian ESTHER ANN MANION GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, ASSOCIATE EDITOR Assistant Illustrations Editor Chief Cartographer WALTER M. EDWARDS JAMES M. DARLEY Illustrations Staf CartographicStaff KIP Ross NEWMAN BUMSTEAD, Asst. Chief ANDREW POGGENPOHL CHARLES E. RIDDIFORD EDWARD C. FERRIDAY, JR. WELLMAN CHAMBERLIN HERBERT S. WILBURN, JR. ATHOS D. GRAZZINI LEONARD J. GRANT JOHN J. BREHM CHARLES ALLMON RALPH E. McALEER CARO STILLWELL, Librarian APPHIA HOLDSTOCK Staff Artist and Naturalist RICHARD DARLEY WALTER A. WEBER School Service PhotographicLaboratory RALPH GRAY, Chief EDWIN L. WISHERD, Chief News Service RICHARD H. STEWART, Asst. Chief WINDSOR P. BOOTH, Chief NEWTON V. BLAKESLEE SAMUEL W. MATTHEWS Staff Photographers SAMUEL . THEWS B. ANTHONY STEWART, Chief Advertising WILLARD R. CULVER GILBERT G. LA GORCE, Director J. BAYLOR ROBERTS GeographicResearch VOLKMAR WENTZEL GEORGE CROSSETTE ROBERT F. SIsSON Editorial Research JOHN E. FLETCHER INEZ B. RYAN, Chief DONALD McBAIN MARGARET G. BLEDSOE DAVID S. BOYER PrintingProduction BATES LITTLEHALES DEE JAMES ANDELLA Film Editor JOE M. BARLETT JOSEPH M. RIDEOUT Copyright. 1954, by National Geographic Society. Washington. D. C. International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reservados todos los derechos. Printed in U. S. A. Entered at the Post Office at Washington. D. C ., as Second Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103. Act of October 3. 1917, authorized July 1. 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.