National Geographic : 1954 Aug
194 Keystone Across Frozen Ore Sound, Danes of All Ages Hike to Distant Sweden Last winter was one of the coldest for northern Europe in half a century. When the 7-mile channel between Denmark and Sweden froze solid, Sjaelland islanders walked over the ice to the Swedish island of Ven. Bothnian coasts are studded with sawmills from which, when ice permits, ships carry lumber and pulp from Sweden and Finland. Far north near Troms0, Norway, modern history has produced a new kind of iron "mine." Here the Nazi battleship Tirpitz, wrecked by British bombs November 12, 1944, has already yielded more than 25,000 tons of scrap metal. To the south, British, American, and Soviet flags label zones of occupation in Germany. A green boundary line starting near Liibeck marks the division between East and West. Inside the Soviet zone, partitioned Berlin is a focus of international tension. Boundaries have also changed in the eastern part of the map. Lithuania, Estonia, and Latvia became Soviet "republics" in 1940, though their absorption by Russia has not been recognized by the United States. Fin land has ceded about one-eighth of its terri tory to Russia. Poland has lost about 45 per cent of its land the same way, but gained 38,986 square miles of former German terri tory rich in industry. Mapping these Baltic lands that have fallen into the embrace of the Russian Bear re quires cartographic research akin to detective work. The problem stems from the Commu nists' fondness for wholesale name changes in their new empire. The eastern part of the map is full of Rus sian and Polish names featuring combinations of consonants baffling to English typesetters and tongues. German Bromberg, for instance, is now Polish Bydgoszcz, but the old name is retained in parentheses. In the far north, migrations of reindeer herding Lapps across the Norwegian-Finnish frontier have sometimes caused international friction. This year Norway and Finland agreed to build a barbed-wire reindeer fence along most of their common border. When it is completed in 1957, the frontier-scorning Lapps, like other Europeans, will find their movements restricted.