National Geographic : 1954 Dec
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON 6, D. C. JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer HERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON, Assistant Treasurer LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman, Research Committee ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research Committee MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, Vice-President THOMAS W. McKNEW, Secretary VERNON H. BREWSTER, Assistant Secretary MELVIN M. PAYNE, Assistant Secretary ROBERT E. DOYLE, Assistant Secretary SIBYL PECK, Assistant to the Chairman of the Board GEORGE C. MARSHALL General of the Army Formerly Secretary of Defens CURTIS E. LEMAY General, U. S. Air Force, Comn Strategic Air Command LEROY A. LINCOLN Chairman of the Board Metropolitan Life Insurance LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director Emeritus, National Bureau of Standards H. RANDOLPH MADDOX Vice President, American Telep and Telegraph Company ERNEST E. NORRIS Retired President Southern Railway System MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOI Associate Editor National Geographic Magazii BOARD OF TRUSTEES GILBERT GROSVENOR Chairman of the Board, Formerly President, National Geographic Society and Editor of its Magazine (1899-1954) se JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE Editor, National Geographic Magazine handing ROBERT V. FLEMING F President and Chairman of the Board Riggs National Bank ALEXANDER WETMORE Co. Research Associate Smithsonian Institution WILLIAM V. PRATT Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired RICHARD E. BYRD Vic hone Rear Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired JUAN T. TRIPPE President, Pan American World Airways WILLIAM E. WRATHER Director, U. S. Geological Survey ELISHA HANSON ne Lawyer and Naturalist CHARLES F. KETTERING Consultant and Director General Motors Corporation LLOYD B. WILSON ormerly Chairman of the Board Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies L. O. COLBERT Rear Admiral, U. S . Coast and Geodetic Survey, Retired EMORY S. LAND e Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired Formerly President Air Transport Association THOMAS W. MCKNEW Secretary National Geographic Society HUGH L. DRYDEN Director, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which it was founded sixty six years ago, the National Geographic Society publishes the National Geographic Magazine monthly. All receipts are in vested in The Magazine itself or expended directly to promote geographic knowledge. Articles and photographs are desired. For material The Magazine uses, generous remuneration is made. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys con stantly being made, The Society has sponsored more than 100 scientific expeditions, some of which required years of field work to achieve their objectives. The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back the historic horizons of the southwestern United States to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus. By dating the ruins of vast communal dwellings in that region, The Society's re searches solved secrets that had puzzled historians for 300 years. In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Institution, January 16, 1939, discovered the oldest dated work of man in the Americas. This stone is engraved, in Mayan characters, November 4, 291 B. c. (Spinden Correlation). It antedates by 200 years anything else dated in America, and reveals a great center of early American culture, previously unknown. On November 11, 1935, the stratosphere flight of the world's largest balloon. Explorer II, sponsored by The Society and the U. S. Army Air Corps, reached a world-record altitude of 72,395 feet. Capts. Albert W. Stevens and Orvil A. Anderson took aloft a ton of scientific instruments and obtained results of extraordinary value. A notable undertaking in the history of astronomy was launched in 1949 by The Society and Palomar Observatory of the California Institute of Technology. This project will photomap the vast reaches of space and provide for observa tories all over the world the most extensive sky atlas yet made. In 1948 The Society sent seven expeditions to study the sun's eclipse on a 5,320-mile arc from Burma to the Aleutians. A Greek cargo ship sunk in the Mediterranean 2,200 years ago was found and investigated in 1952 54 by the National Geographic Society-Calypso Marine Archeological Expedition led by Capt. J .- Y. Cousteau of the French Navy. The National Geographic Society and the Royal Ontario Museum in 1951 explored and measured newly found Chubb meteor crater, 11,500 feet in diameter, in northern Quebec. The Society and individual members contributed $100,000 to help preserve for the American people the finest of Cali fornia's sequoias, the Giant Forest in Sequoia National Park. One of the world's largest icefields and glacial systems out side the polar regions was discovered in Alaska and Yukon by Bradford Washburn while exploring for The Society and the Harvard Institute of Exploration in 1938. EXECUTIVE STAFF OF NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, EDITOR MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR. ASSOCIATE EDITOR Assistant Editors FREDERICK G. VOBBURGH LEO A. BORAH MASON SUTHERLAND GEORGE W. LONG Editorial Staff ANDREW H. BROWN ROBERT LESLIE CONLY BEVERLEY M. BOWIE LONNELLE AIKMAN STUART E. JONES ALLAN C. FISHER, JR. KENNETH F. WEAVER JOHN SCOFIELD NATHANIEL T. KENNEY JOHN R. HOOPES ROSE T. MACBRYDE Editorial Research INEZ B. RYAN, Chief MARGARET G. BLEDSOE Librarian ESTHER ANN MANION JULIA F. BANKS, Asst. GeographicResearch GEORGE CROSSETTE Foreign Editorial Staff W. ROBERT MOORE, Chief LuIs MARDEN FRANC SHOR HOWELL WALKER Secretary's Staff Personnel Officer HERBERT T. HENDERSON Membership Administration SHELDON CARY Chief Auditor F. CHARLES BROWN Payroll Operations ESTHER M. LOHRER Statistical Control EVERETT C. BROWN Cashier WILLIAM H. MCCAULEY Cost Control SARGENT C. ELLIOTT Purchasing JOHN P. M. JOHNSTON Administration JOHN H. WALKER Membership Fulfillment ROY J. KLOCKENBRINK Chief Cartographer JAMES M. DARLEY CartographicStaff NEWMAN BUMSTEAD, Asst. Chief C. E. RIDDIFORD, Typographer WELLMAN CHAMBERLIN ATHOS D. GRAZZINI JOHN J. BREHM RALPH E. MCALEER APPHIA HOLDSTOCK RICHARD DARLEY WALTER K. MORRISON School Service RALPH GRAY, Chief News Service WINDSOR P. BOOTH, Chief SAMUEL W. MATTHEWS Advertising GILBERT G. LA GORCE, Director JOHN F. CONNERY, Manager PrintingProduction DEE JAMES ANDELLA JOE M. BARLETT Film Editor JOSEPH M. RIDEOUT Assistant Illustrations Editor WALTER M. EDWARDS Illustrations Staff f KIP Ross HERBERT S. WILBURN, JR. ANDREW POGGENPOHL LEONARD J. GRANT CHARLES ALLMON CARO STILLWELL, Librarian Staff Artist and Naturalist WALTER A. WEBER Staff Photographers B. ANTHONY STEWART, Chief WILLARD R. CULVER J. BAYLOR ROBERTS VOLKMAR WENTZEL ROBERT F. SISSON JOHN E. FLETCHER DONALD McBAIN DAVID S. BOYER BATES LITTLEHALES PhotographicLaboratory EDWIN L. WISHERD, Chief RICHARD H. STEWART, Asst. Chief NEWTON V. BLAKESLEE Copyright. 1954, by National Geographic Society. Washington, D. C. International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reservados todos los derechos. Printed in U. S. A. Entered at the Post Office at Washington, D. C ., as Second Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized July 1, 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.