National Geographic : 1955 Mar
348 Siqueira E. Silva Viaducts and Tunnels Speed Brazilians to Work in Sao Paulo, World Coffee Capital chromium and iron. But the country's chief mineral producer is Minas Gerais, with its iron and wealth of other ores. In Brazil the building of roads and airports has progressed more rapidly than construction of railroads, shown by black lines. Other black symbols show oilfields and pipelines. Map Starred with Many Airports Red stars symbolize the biggest boost to the nation's mobility. These represent air ports, around which many new settlements are being built in frontier Brazil. The total of 270 has jumped from 140 in only five years. Red lines for highways include an extra heavy one indicating sections of the Pan American Highway, eventually planned to run almost the length of the Americas. Landlocked Paraguay, which for years has been almost isolated, had good reason to cele brate when direct shipping service was estab lished from Europe in 1954 and, early this year, from the United States. Previously, goods aboard deep-sea vessels were trans ferred at Buenos Aires or Montevideo to river boats and railroads. But now river channels have been improved and small freighters go from the Atlantic up the Rio de la Plata, the Parana, and the Paraguay to Asunci6n. Ship ping time from New York has been cut from eight to four weeks. Another river development, in eastern Vene zuela, is part of a huge new mining project. The Orinoco River has been dredged as far as the new port of Puerto Ordaz to make way for seagoing carriers which haul ore from the fabulous "Iron Mountain," Cerro Bolivar, to the new United States Steel Corporation plant at Morrisville, Pennsylvania. The map shows the new 90-mile railroad built to transport ore from mine to port. In the same area appear boom towns like El Pao and Palua, which serve the iron-mining operations of Bethlehem Steel Company. Bethlehem has been shipping ore from the El Pao district to its plant at Sparrows Point, Maryland, since 1951. The map's depth contours and some 300 soundings give a picture of the ocean floor, notably the Continental Shelf, which is re markably steep and narrow for hundreds of miles south of Cabo de Sao Roque.