National Geographic : 1955 Nov
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON 6, D. C. JOHN OLIVER LA GORGE, President MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, Vice-President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer THOMAS W. McKNEW, Vice-President and Secretary HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON, Assistant Treasurer VERNON H. BREWSTER, Assistant Secretary WILLIAM H. McCAULEY, Assistant Treasurer MELVIN M. PAYNE, Assistant Secretary LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman, Research Committee ROBERT E. DOYLE, Assistant Secretary ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research Committee LEON J. CANOVA, Assistant to the President SIBYL PECK, Assistant to the Chairman of the Board GEORGE C. MARSHALL General of the Army Formerly Secretary of Defens CURTIS E. LEMAY Commander in Chief Strategic Air Command LEROY A. LINCOLN Chairman of the Board Metropolitan Life Insurance LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director Emeritus, National Bureau of Standards BENJAMIN M. MCKELWAY Editor, The Washington Star HUGH L. DRYDEN Director, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics ELISHA HANSON Lawyer and Naturalist MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOI Vice-President and Associate E National Geographic Magazi BOARD OF TRUSTEES GILBERT GROSVENOR Chairman of the Board, Formerly President, National Geographic Society, and Editor of its Magazine (1899-1954) se JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE Editor, National Geographic Magazine ROBERT V. FLEMING Cl President and Chairman of the Board Riggs National Bank F ALEXANDER WETMORE Co. Research Associate Smithsonian Institution WILLIAM V. PRATT Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired RICHARD E. BYRD Rear Admiral, U. S . Navy, Retired Vic JUAN T. TRIPPE President, Pan American World Airways WILLIAM E. WRATHER Director, U. S. Geological Survey R ERNEST E. NORRIS ditor Retired President Vice ne Southern Railway System CHARLES F. KETTERING Consultant and Director General Motors Corporation EARL WARREN chief Justice of the United States LLOYD B. WILSON ormerly Chairman of the Board Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies L. O. COLBERT Rear Admiral, U. S . Coast and Geodetic Survey, Retired EMORY S. LAND e Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired Formerly President Air Transport Association THOMAS W. MCKNEW Vice-President and Secretary National Geographic Society H. RANDOLPH MADDOX - President, American Telephone and Telegraph Company ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which it was founded sixty seven years ago, the National Geographic Society publishes the National Geographic Magazine monthly. All receipts are in vested in The Magazine itself or expended directly to promote geographic knowledge. Articles and photographs are desired. For material The Magazine uses, generous remuneration is made. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys con stantly being made, The Society has sponsored more than 100 scientific expeditions, some of which required years of field work to achieve their objectives. The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back the historic horizons of the southwestern United States to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus. By dating the ruins of vast communal dwellings in that region, The Society's re searches solved secrets that had puzzled historians for 300 years. In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Institution, January 16, 1939, discovered the oldest dated work of man in the Americas. This stone is engraved, in Mayan characters, November 4, 291 B. c . (Spinden Correlation). It antedates by 200 years anything else dated in America and reveals a great center of early American culture, previously unknown. On November 11, 1935, the stratosphere flight of the world's largest balloon, Explorer II, sponsored by The Society and the U. S. Army Air Corps, reached a world-record altitude of 72,395 feet. Capts. Albert W. Stevens and Orvil A. Anderson took aloft a ton of scientific instruments and obtained results of extraordinary value. A notable undertaking in astronomy was launched in 1949 by The Society and Palomar Observatory of the California Insti tute of Technology. This project photomapped vast areas of space, making available to observatories all over the world, at less than cost, the most extensive sky atlas yet achieved. In 1948 The Society sent seven expeditions to study the sun's eclipse on a 5,320-mile arc from Burma to the Aleutians. A Greek cargo ship sunk in the Mediterranean 2,200 years ago was found in 1952 and is being excavated by the National Geographic Society-Calypso Marine Archeological Expedition led by Capt. J .-Y . Cousteau of the French Navy. The National Geographic Society and the Royal Ontario Museum in 1951 explored and measured newly found Chubb meteor crater, 11,500 feet in diameter, in northern Quebec. The Society and individual members contributed $100,000 to help preserve for the American people the finest of Cali fornia's sequoias, the Giant Forest in Sequoia National Park. One of the world's largest icefields and glacial systems out side the polar regions was discovered in Alaska and Yukon by Bradford Washburn while exploring for The Society and the Harvard Institute of Exploration in 1938. EXECUTIVE STAFF OF NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE Assistant Editors FREDERICK G. VOSBUROH LEO A. BORAH MASON SUTHERLAND GEORGE W. LONG EditorialStaff BEVERLEY M. BOWIE ANDREW H. BROWN ROBERT LESLIE CONLY ALLAN C. FISHER, JR. JOHN R. HOOPES JAY JOHNSTON STUART E. JONES NATHANIEL T. KENNEY CAROLYN B. PATTERSON EVELYN PETERSEN JOHN SCOFIELD MERLE SEVERY KENNETH F. WEAVER ROSE T. MACBRYDE, Asst. Executive Assistant HERMAN J. A . C. ARENS Editorial Research INEZ B. RYAN, Chief MARGARET G. BLEDSOE Librarian ESTHER ANN MANION JULIA F. BANKS, Asst. GeographicResearch GEORGE CROSSETTE JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, EDITOR Illustrations Editor MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, ASSOCIATE EDITOR WALTER MEAYERS EDWARDS Foreign Editorial Staff Chief Cartographer Assistant Illustrations Editors W. ROBERT MOORE, Chief JAMES M. DARLEY KIP Ross DAVID S. BOYER CartographicStaff HERBERT S. WILBURN, JR. LuIs MARDEN NEWMAN BUMSTEAD, Asst. Chief IllustrationsStaff FRANC SHOR C. E . RIDDIFORD, Typographer NLnso HOWELL WALKER JOHN J. BREHM ANDREW POGGENPOHL, Senior Secretary's Staff WELLMAN CHAMBERLIN CHARLES ALLMON Personnel Officer RICHARD DARLEY WILLIAM C. BAUGHMAN HERBERT T. HENDERSON ATHOS D. GRAZZINI LEONARD J. GRANT Membership Administration APPHIA HOLDSTOCK GIFEORD D. HAMPLHIRE SHELDON CARY RALPH E. MCALEER GERALDINE LINDER Chi uditoNC WALTER K. MORRISON CARO STILLWELL, Librarian F. CHARLES BROWN School Service Staff Artist and Naturalist Payroll Operations RALPH GRAY, Chief WALTER A. WEBER ESTHER M. LOHRER ENRIQUE C. CANOVA Staf Photographers Statistical Control News Service B. ANTHONY STEWART, Chief EVERETT C. BROWN WINDSOR P. BOOTH, Chief WILLARD R. CULVER Cashier LONNELLE AIKMAN JOHN E. FLETCHER FRANK S. DELK SAMUEL W. MATTHEWS BATES LITTLEHALES Cost Control ROBERT RUTH DONALD MCBAIN SARGENT C. ELLIOTT Advertising KATHLEEN REVIS Purchasing GILBERT G. LA GORCE, Director J. BAYLOR ROBERTS JOHN P. M. JOHNSTON JOHN F. CONNERY, Manager ROBERT F. SISSON Administration Printing Production VOLKMAR WENTZEL JOHN H. WALKER DEE JAMES ANDELLA PhotographicLaboratory WILLIAM T. BELL JOE M. BARLETT EDWIN L. WISHERD, Chief Membership Fulfillment Film Editor RICHARD H. STEWART, Asst. Chief ROY J. KLOCKENBRINK JOSEPH M. RIDEOUT NEWTON V. BLAKESLEE Copyright © 1955by National Geographic Society. Washington. D. C . International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reservados todos los derechos. Printed in U. S. A. Entered at the Post Office at Washington. D. C.. as Second Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103. Act of October 3. 1917, authorized July 1. 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.