National Geographic : 1956 Jun
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON 6, D. C. JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, President MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, Vice-President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer THOMAS W. McKNEW, Vice-President and Secretary IILLEARY F. HOSKINSON, Assistant Treasurer VERNON H. BREWSTER, Assistant Secretary WILLIAM H. McCAULEY, Assistant Treasurer MELVIN M. PAYNE, Assistant Secretary LYMAN .. BRIGGS, Chairman, Research Committee ROBERT E. DOYLE, Assistant Secretary ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research Committee LEON J. CANOVA, Assistant to the President SIBYL PECK, Assistant to the Chairman of the Board GEORGE C. MARSHALL General of the Army Formerly Secretary of Defen CURTIS E. LEMIAY Commander in Chief Strategic Air Command LEROY A. LINCOLN Chairman of the Board Metropolitan Life Insurance LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director Emeritus, National Bureau of Standards BENJAMIN M. MCKELWAY Editor, The Washington Star ItUGH L. I)RYDEN Director, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics ELISHA IIANSON Lawyer and Naturalist MELVILLE BELL ( ROSVENO Vice-President and Associate 1' National Geographic Magazi BOARD OF TRUSTEES GILBERT GROSVENOR Chairman of the Board, Formerly President, National Geographic Society, and Editor of its Magazine (1899-19 se JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE Editor, National Geographic Magazine ROBERT V. FLEMING Chairman of the Board Riggs National Bank ALEXANDER WETMORE Co. Research Associate Smithsonian Institution W'ILLIAM V. PRATT Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired RICHARD E. BYRD Rear Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired JUAN T. TRIPPE President, Pan American World Airways WILLIAM E. WRATHER Director. U . S. Geological Survey, Retired )R ERNEST E. NORRIS editor Retired President V ne Southern Railway System CHARLES F. KETTERING 54) Consultant and Director General Motors Corporation EARL WARREN Chief Justice of the United States LLOYD B. WILSON Formerly Chairman of the Board Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies L. 0. COLBERT Rear Admiral, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Retired EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral, U. S . Navy, Retired Formerly President Air Transport Association THOMAS W. MCKNEW Vice-President and Secretary National Geographic Society HI. RANDOLPH ADI)DOX ice-President, American Telephone and Telegraph Conpany ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the Ipurposes for which it was founded sixty eight years ago, the National Geographic Society publishes the National Geographic Magazine monthly. All receipts are in vested in The Magazine itself or expended directly to promote geographic knowledge. Articles and photographs are desired. For material The Magazine uses, generous remuneration is made. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys con stantly being made, The Society has sponsored more than 100 scientific expeditions, sole (of whllicll required years of field work to achieve their objectives. The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back the historic horizons of the southwestern United States to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus. By dating the ruins of vast communal dwellings in that region, The Society's re searches solved secrets that had puzzled historians for 300 years. In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Institution, January li, 1939, discovered the oldest dated work of man in the Americas. This stone is engraved, in Mayan characters, November 4, 291 1n. c. (Spinden Correlation). It antedates by 200 years anything else dated in America and reveals a great center of early American culture, previously unknown. On November 11, 1935, tile stratosphere flight of the worll's largest balloon, Explorer II, sponsored by The Society and the U. S. Army Air Corps, reached a world-record altitude of 72,395 feet. Capts. Albert W. Stevens and Orvil A. Anderson took aloft a ton of scientific instruments and obtained results of extraordinary value. A notable undertaking in astronomy was launched in 1949 by The Society and Palomar Observatory of the California Insti tute of Technology. This project photomapped vast areas of space, making available to observatories all over thle worll, at less than cost, the most extensive sky atlas yet achieved. In 1948 The Society sent seven expeditions to study the sun's eclipse on a 5,320-1mile arc from Burma to tile Aleutians. A Greek cargo ship sunk in the Mediterranean 2,200 years ago was found in 1952 and is being excavated by the National Geographic Society-C'alypso Marine Archeological Expedition led by Capt. J.- Y . Cousteau of the French Navy. The National Geographic Society and the Royal Ontario Museum in 1951 explored and measured newly found Chubb meteor crater, 11,500 feet in diameter, in northern Quebec. The Society and individual members contributed $100,000 to help preserve for the American people the finest of Cali fornia's sequoias, the Giant Forest in Sequoia National Park. One of the world's largest icefields and glacial systems out side the polar regions was discovered in Alaska and Yukon by Bradford Waslhburn while exploring for The Society and the Harvard Institute of Exploration in 1938. EXECUTIVE STAFF OF NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE Assistant Editors FREDERICK G. VOSIURGH LEO A. BORAII 1IASON SUTHERLAND GEORGE W. LONG Editorial Staff BEVERLEY I. BOWIE ANDREW H. BROwN RoiiERT LESLIE CONLY ALLAN C. FISHER, JR. JOHN R. llooPES JAY ,JOHNSTON STUART E. JONES NATHANIEL T. KENNEY MATT C. McI)ADIE CAROLYN B. PATTERSON EVELYN PETERSEN JOHN ScoI IELD MERLE SEVERY KIENNi'iIll F. WEAVER ROSE T. MACBRYDE, Asst. Exertite Assistant lHEnMAx J.. A . C . ARENAS Editorial Research INEZ B. RYAN, Chief MIARGARET G. BLEDSOE Librarian ESTHER ANN IANION ,JULIA FI.BANKS, Asst. GeographicResearch GEORGE CROSSTTE NEWTON V. BLAKESLEE JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, EDITOR MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, ASSOCIATE EDITOR Foreign Editorial Staff W. ROBERT MOORE, Chief I)AVID S. BOYER LuisAIARDEN FRANC SHORT HOWELL WALKER Secretary's Staff Personnel Officer HERBERT T. HENDERSON Membership Administration SHELDON CARY Chief Auditor F. CHARLES BROWN Payroll Operations ESTHER M. LOHRER Statistical Control EVERETT C. BROWN Cashier FRANK S. I)ELK Cost Control SARGENT C. ELLIOTT Purchasing JOHN P. M. JOHNSTON Administration JOHN II. WALKER WILLIAM T. BI:LL, Membership Fulfillment ROY J. KLOCKENBRINK Chief Cartographer JAMES AI. DARLEY CartographicStaff NEWMAN BUMSTEAD, Asst. Chief C. E. RiDDiFORo , Typographer JOHN J. BREHMx WELLMAN CIIAMIHERLIN RICHARD I)ARLEY ATHO I). GRA.ZZ.NI APPHIA HOLDSTOCK RALPH E. IMcALEER WALTER K. MIORRISON School Service RALPH GRAY, Chief ENRIQUE C. CANOVA News Service WINDSOR P. BOOTH, Chief LONNELLE AIKMAN SAMUEL W. IATTIEWS Advertising GILBERT G. LA GORCE, Director JOHN F. CONNERY, Manager PrintingProduction DEE JAMES ANDELLA JOE 1h. BARLETT Film Editor JOSEPH M. RIDEOUT IllustrationsEditor WALTER IEAYERS EIDWARDS Assistant Illustrations Editors KIP Ross HERBERT S. WILBURN, JR. Illustrations Staff ANDREW POGGENPOIIL, Senior CHARLES ALLMON WILLIAM C. BAUGIIMAN WILiBUR I. (GARREITT LEONARD J. GRANT GIFFORD 1). IIAMPSIIRE BROOKS lHONEYCUTT GERALDINE LINER CARO STILLWELL, Librarian Staff Artist andl Naturalist WALTER A. WEBER Staff Photographers B. ANTIONY STEWART, Chief WILLARD 11. CULVER JOHN E. I'LETCIER BATES LrTTLEIIALES D)ONALD McBAIN IrKATILEEN RIE\'IS J. BAYLOR ROBERTS ROBERT F. SISSON VOLKMAR W ENTZEL photographicc Laboratory EDnW N L. WISH ERD, Chief RICHARD H. STEWART, Asst. Chief S Copyright © 195S;h National (;Getrraphic Society. Washington, D. C. 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