National Geographic : 1956 Dec
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON 6, D. C. JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, President MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, Vice-President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer THOMAS W. McKNEW, Vice-President and Secretary HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON, Assistant Treasurer MELVIN M. PAYNE, Senior Assistant Secretary WILLIAM H. McCAULEY, Assistant Treasurer VERNON H. BREWSTER, Assistant Secretary LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman, Research Committee ROBERT E. DOYLE, Assistant Secretary ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research Committee LEON J. CANOVA, Assistant to the President SIBYL PECK, Assistant to the Chairman of the Board GEORGE C. MARSHALL C General of the Army Geo Formerly Secretary of Defense CURTIS E. LEMAY Commander in Chief Strategic Air Command MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Vice-President and Associate Editor National Geographic Magazine LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director Emeritus, National Bureau of Standards BENJAMIN M. MCKELWAY Editor, The Washington Star HUGH L. DRYDEN Director, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics ELISHA HANSON Lawyer and Naturalist LEROY A. LINCOLN Chairman of the Board Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. BOARD OF TRUSTEES GILBERT GROSVENOR hairman of the Board, Formerly President, Nation; graphic Society, and Editor of its Magazine (1899-1 JOHN OLIVER LA GORGE Editor, National Geographic Magazine ROBERT V. FLEMING Chairman of the Board Riggs National Bank ALEXANDER WETMORE Research Associate Smithsonian Institution THOMAS W. MCKNEW Vice-President and Secretary National Geographic Society RICHARD E. BYRD Rear Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired JUAN T. TRIPPE President, Pan American World Airways WILLIAM E. WRATHER Director, U. S. Geological Survey, Retired WILLIAM V. PRATT Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired al CHARLES F. KETTERING 1954) Consultant and Director General Motors Corporation EARL WARREN Chief Justice of the United States LLOYD B. WILSON Honorary Chairman of the Board Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies L. O. COLBERT Rear Admiral, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Retired EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired Formerly President Air Transport Association H. RANDOLPH MADDOX Vice-President, American Telephone and Telegraph Company ERNEST E. NORRIS Retired President Southern Railway System ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which it was founded 68 years ago, the National Geographic Society publishes the National Geographic Magazine monthly. Receipts are invested in The Magazine or expended to promote geographic knowledge. Articles and photographs are desired. For material The Magazine uses, generous remuneration is made. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys con stantly being made, The Society has sponsored more than 100 scientific expeditions, some of which required years of field work to achieve their objectives. It has aided and encouraged exploration literally to the ends of the earth, having contributed to expeditions of Rear Admiral Robert E. Peary, discoverer of the North Pole, and Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd, first man to fly over the North and South Poles. Photomapping the heavens to a depth of a billion light-years from Palomar Observatory, the National Geographic Society and California Institute of Technology have expanded the known universe at least 25 times and discovered tens of thou sands of giant star systems. This seven-year Sky Survey (1949-1956) has made available to observatories all over the world the most extensive sky atlas yet produced. In Russell Cave, Alabama, in 1956, an archeological expedi tion of The Society and the Smithsonian Institution excavated the oldest material of human origin yet found east of the Mississippi-charcoal from cooking fires of 8,000 years ago. The site revealed a unique record of man's occupancy from 6200 B.c. or earlier until about A.D . 1650. Finds included many artifacts, weapons, and the 4,000-year-old bones of a man and a dog. National Geographic exploration and scientific study made known to the world the natural wonders now preserved as Kat mai National Monument and Carlsbad Caverns National Park. The Society's notable expeditions pushed back the historic horizons of the Southwest to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus by dating the vast ruins of Pueblo Bonito. In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Institution, January 16, 1939, discovered the oldest dated work of man in the Americas. This stone is engraved, in Maya-like characters, November 4, 291 B. c. (Spinden correlation). It antedates by 200 years anything else dated in America and reveals a great center of early American culture, previously unknown. On November 11, 1935, the stratosphere flight of the world's largest balloon, Explorer II, sponsored by The Society and the U. S. Army Air Corps, reached a world-record altitude of 72,395 feet. Capts. Albert W. Stevens and Orvil A. Anderson re corded scientific results of extraordinary value. The Society and individual members contributed $100,000 to help preserve for the American people the finest of Cali fornia's sequoias, the Giant Forest in Sequoia National Park. EXECUTIVE STAFF OF NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE Senior Assistant Editor FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH Assistant Editors LEO A. BORAIf ROBERT LESLIE CONLY GEORGE W. LONG FRANC SHOR MASON SUTHERLAND Senior Editorial Staff BEVERLEY M. BOWIE ANDREW H. BROWN ALLAN C. FISHER, JR. Editorial Staff JOHN R. HOOPES JAY JOHNSTON STUART E. JONES NATHANIEL T. KENNEY MATT C. MCI)ADE CAROLYN B. PATTERSON JOHN SCOFIELD MERLE SEVERY KENNETH F. WEAVER ROSE T. MACBRYDE, Asst. Executive Assistant HERMAN J. A. C. ARENS Editorial Research INEZ B. RYAN, Chief MARGARET G. BLEDSOE Librarian ESTHER ANN MANION JULIA F. BANKS, Asst. GeographicResearch GEORGE CROSSETTE, Chief LouISE F. ALTHOFF NEWTON V. BLAKESLEE JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, EDITOR MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, ASSOCIATE EDITOR Foreign Editorial Staff W. ROBERT MOORE, Chief DAVID S. BOYER LurI MARDEN JEAN BOWIE SIOR HOWELL WALKER Secretary's Staff Personnel Officer HERBERT T. HENDERSON Membership Administration SHELDON CARY Accounting F. CHARLES BROWN, Chief Auditor C. VERNON SANDERS, Auditor Payroll Operations ESTHER M. LOHRER Statistical Control EVERETT C. BROWN Cashier FRANK S. DELK Cost Control SARGENT C. ELLIOTT Purchasing JOHN P. M. JOHNSTON Administration WILLIAM T. BELL CIARLES F. ALTHOFF Membership Fulfillment RoY J. KLOCKENBRINK Supervisor of Accounts DELLA M. HURT Chief Cartographer JAMES M. DARLEY CartographicStaff NEWMAN BUMSTEAD, Asst. Chief IRVIN E. ALLEMAN JOHN J. BREHM WELLMAN CHAMBERLIN RICHARD DARLEY ATIOS ). GRAZZINI APPIIIA HOLDSTOCK RALPH E. McALEER WALTER K. MORRISON Typographer C. E. RIDDIFORD Cartographic Artist WILLIAM PALMSTROM School Service RALPH GRAY, Chief WILLIAM C. BAUGHMAN ENRIQUE C. CANOVA EDWARDS PARK News Service WINDSOR P. BOOTH, Chief LONNELLE AIKMAN SAMUEL W. MATTHEWS EVELYN PETERSEN Advertising GILBERT G. LA GORCE, Director JOIN F. CONNERY, Manager Printing Production DEE JAMES ANDELLA JOE M. BARLETT Illustrations Editor WALTER MEAYERS EDWARDS Assistant Illustrations Editors KIP Ross ANDREW POGGENPOHL HERBERT S. WILBURN, JR. Illustrations Staff CHARLES ALIMON ROBERT L. BREEDEN WILBUR E. GARRETT LEONARD J. GRANT GIFFORD D. HAMPSHIRE GERALDINE LINDER CAROL STILLWELL, Librarian Staff Artist and Naturalist WALTER A. WEBER Staff Photographers B. ANTIONY STEWART, Chief WILLARD R. CULVER JOHN E. FLETCHER BATES LITTLEHALES DI)NALD McBAIN KATILEEN REVIB J. BAYLOR ROBERTS ROBERT F. SISSON VOLKMAR WENTZEL PhotographicLaboratory EDWIN L. WISIIERD, Chief RICHARD I. STEWART, Asst. Chief Film Editor JOSEPH M. RIDEOUT Copyright © 1956 by National Geographic Society, Washington, D. C . International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reservados todos los derechos. Printed in . S. A. Entered at the Post Office at Washington, D. C ., as Second Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized July 1. 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.