National Geographic : 1957 Mar
New National Geographic Map Keeps Pace with Our Fast-changing World 417 CHANGES come rapidly in today's world. In the five years since the National Geographic Society last pub lished a world map, new countries have been born and old ones have vanished; the highest mountain has been found higher, the deepest ocean deeper; man has pushed civilization farther north and south than ever before. All these and a host of other changes are reflected in the new 10-color map of the world, sent to The Society's members everywhere with this issue of their Magazine. More than 2,300,000 copies have been printed-the largest initial printing of any map in The Society's history.* Politics and war have left the heaviest imprints. In Africa four sovereign states have emerged. Morocco, Tunisia, and the Sudan all were dependencies five years ago. Similarly the Gold Coast, a former British colony, gains independence this month under the less glamorous name of Ghana. Cease-fire lines still split Korea and Viet Nam, but Europe's formal occupation zones are gone: Austria is sovereign once more; Communist-controlled East Germany appears as the German Democratic Republic; and West Germany has become the independent Federal Republic of Germany, again incor porating the Saar. Within the Soviet Union, the Karelo-Fin nish Republic, which stretched north of Lenin grad, has disappeared, absorbed into the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. Soviet pressure influenced China to create a newly autonomous region, Inner Mongolia. Mount Everest Gains 26 Feet New surveys and scientific research have also altered the map. Mount Everest is shown 26 feet higher and Mount McKinley 20 feet higher than previously recorded. Southwest of Guam the British survey ship Challenger, named for the famous oceanographic vessel that circled the globe in 1872-76, discovered in 1951 the deepest spot yet found-the Chal lenger Depth at 35,640 feet. In Canada the new aluminum center of Kitimat appears on the Pacific coast. Across the continent, where Quebec borders Labrador, discovery of huge iron deposits has replaced Burnt Creek with the towns of Schefferville and Knob Lake and speeded the completion of a railroad south to the St. Lawrence River. The Chinese Communists, eager for indus trialization, have also completed a railroad from Peiping northward through the Great Wall and across the Mongolian Republic to connect with Russian trackage at Ulan Ude. Denmark named Greenland's northern shore in honor of the explorer Knud Rasmussen; Canada has renamed her northernmost islands after Britain's Queen Elizabeth II. The Society's latest world map-the tenth it has published since 1900-also presents a more detailed topography of the seas than ever before. Names, soundings, contours, and vary ing shades of blue mark oceanographic fea tures; about 160 underwater peaks, troughs, plateaus, ridges, and basins are shown. Until recently the Wharton Basin, south of Sumatra, was considered simply a deep spot: new soundings outline an 18,000-foot depres sion almost as large as Peru. The Emperor Seamounts, ranging from Kamchatka to Ha waii, rise to 17,000 feet-all below water and boast the names of ancient Japanese rulers, bestowed on them by Americans. Tallest Peak Rises from Ocean Depths Soundings off the island of Hawaii prove that Mauna Kea is actually the world's tall est mountain. From undersea base to peak it measures 33,476 feet-4,448 feet taller than Everest. Only 13,796 feet rise above sea level, however. An inset delineates the international time zones, which, thanks to civilization following exploration into the Arctic, now extend to Thule, Resolute, and Mould Bay. Another notes the membership of the United Nations (it was 60 in 1951 and is now 80), lists the members of NATO, SEATO, the Arab League, and the Baghdad Pact, and shows the Com munist-dominated world in red. A third inset indicates the varying density of the world's population; a fourth classifies land areas. Two others focus on the Arctic and Antarctic, the latter brought up to date with new data from Operation Deepfreeze I of 1955-1956. * Members may obtain additional copies of the new map of the world (and of all standard maps published by The Society) by writing to the National Geo graphic Society, Washington 6, D. C. Prices, postpaid to all countries, 75c each on paper; $1.50 on fabric. Enlarged world map (68 by 47 inches) on heavy chart paper, $3.00. Indexes to place names, avail able for this and most other maps, 50¢ each. All remittances payable in U. S. funds.