National Geographic : 1957 May
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON 6, D. C . MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, President and Editor THOMAS W. McKNEW, Vice-President and Secretary ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer MELVIN M. PAYNE, Senior Assistant Secretary HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON, Assistant Treasurer VERNON H. BREWSTER, Assistant Secretary WILLIAM H. McCAULEY, Assistant Treasurer ROBERT E. DOYLE, Assistant Secretary LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman, Research Committee SIBYL PECK, Assistant to the Chairman of the Board ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research Committee LEON J. CANOVA, Assistant to the Vice-Chairman HERMAN J. A. C. ARENS, Executive Assistant to the President and Editor BOARD OF TRUSTEES GILBERT GROSVENOR Chairman of the Board, Formerly President, National Geographic Society, and Editor of Its Magazine (1899-1954) GEORGE C. MARSHALL JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE General of the Army Vice-Chairman of the Board, Formerly President and Editor, Formerly Secretary of Defense National Geographic Society (1954-1957) CURTIS E. LEMAY ROBERT Commander in Chief Chairmna Strategic Air Command Riggs N EMORY S. LAND THOMAS Vice Admiral, U. S. Navy, Vice-Presid Retired, Formerly President National G Air Transport Association ALEXAN LYMAN J. BRIGGS Resear Director Emeritus, National Smithson Bureau of Standards HUGH LEONARD CARMICHAEL Director, N Secretary, Smithsonian Conunittee Institution JUAN T. TRIP1PE President, Pan American World Airways Trustee Emeritus: V. FLEMING n of the Board National Bank W. MCKNEW ent and Secretary eographic Society >ER WETMORE cch Associate nian Institution L. DRYDEN ational Advisory for Aeronautics G MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Editor, National Geographic Magazine LLOYD B. WILSON Honorary Chairman of the Board Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies L. O. COLBERT Rear Admiral, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Retired BENJAMIN M. MCKELWAY Editor, The Washington Star CHARLES F. KETTERING Consultant and Director eneral Motors Corporation EARL WARREN Chief Justice of the United States H. RANDOLPH MADDOX Vice-President American Telephone and Telegraph Company WILLIAM E. WRATHER Director, U. S. Geological Survey, Retired ELISHA HANSON Lawyer and Naturalist LEROY A. LINCOLN ERNEST E. NORRIS Chairman of the Board Retired President Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. Southern Railway System WILLIAM V. PRATT, Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which it was founded 69 years ago, the National Geographic Society publishes the National Geographic Magazine monthly. Receipts are invested in The Magazine or expended to promote geographic knowledge. Articles and photographs are desired. For material The Magazine uses, generous remuneration is made. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys con stantly being nade, The Society has sponsored more than 100 scientific expeditions, some of which required years of field work to achieve their objectives. It has aided and encouraged exploration literally to the ends of the earth, having contributed to expeditions of Rear Admiral Robert E. Peary, discoverer of the North Pole, and Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd, first man to fly over the North and South Poles. Photomapping the heavens to a depth of a billion light-years from Palomar Observatory, tie National Geographic Society and California Institute of Technology have expanded the known universe at least 25 times and discovered tens of thou sands of giant star systems. This seven-year Sky Survey (1949-1956) has made available to observatories all over the world the most extensive sky atlas yet produced. In Russell Cave, Alabama, in 1956, an archeological expedi tion of The Society and the Smithsonian Institution excavated the oldest material of human origin yet found east of the Mississippi-charcoal from cooking fires of 8,000 years ago. The site revealed a unique record of man's occupancy from 6200 B. C . or earlier until aboutA. D. 1650. Finds included many artifacts, weapons, and the 4,000-year-old bones of a man and a dog. National Geographic exploration and scientific study made known to the world the natural wonders now preserved as Kat mai National Monument and Carlsbad Caverns National Park. The Society's notable expeditions pushed back the historic horizons of the Southwest to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus by dating the vast ruins of Pueblo Bonito. In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Institution, January 16, 1939, discovered the oldest dated work of man in the Americas. This stone is engraved, in Maya-like characters, November 4, 291 B. C . (Spinden correlation). It antedates by 200 years anything else in America bearing a date and reveals a great center of early American culture, previously unknown. On November 11, 1935, the stratosphere flight of the world's largest balloon, Explorer II, sponsored by The Society and the U. S . Army Air Corps, reached a world-record altitude of 72,395 feet. Capts. Albert W. Stevens and Orvil A. Anderson re corded scientific results of extraordinary value. The Society and individual members contributed $100,000 to help preserve for the American people the finest of Cali fornia's sequoias, the Giant Forest in Sequoia National Park. EXECUTIVE STAFF OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE Assistant Editors ROBERT LESLIE CONLY GEORGE W. LONG FRANC SHOR MASON SUTHERLAND Senior EditorialStaff BEVERLEY M. BOWIE ANDREW H. BROWN ALLAN C. FISHER, JR. Foreign Editorial Staff W. ROBERT MOORE, Chief DAVID S. BOYER LuIS MARDEN JEAN BOWIE SHORT IIOWELL WALKER EditorialStaff JOHN R. IIooPES JAY JOHNSTON STUART E. JONES NATHANIEL T. KENNEY SAMUEL W. MATTHEW'S MATT C. McDADE CAROLYN B. PATTERSON JOHtN SCOI'IELD MERLE SEVERE KENNETH F. WEAVER PETER T. WHItTE ROSE T. MACBRYDE, Asst. Editorial Research INEZ B. RYAN, Chief MARGARET G. BLEDOE Geographic Research GEORGE CROSSETTE, Chief LOUISE F. ALTHOFIF NEWTON V. BLAKESLEE MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, EDITOR THOMAS W. McKNEW, VICE-PRESIDENT AND SECRETARY FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, ASSOCIATE EDITOR Secretary's Staff Personnel Officer HERBERT T. H:ENDERSON Membership Administration SHELDON CARY Payroll Operations ESTHER MI. LOHRER Accounting F. CHARLES BROWN, Chief Auditoi C. VERNON SANDERS, Auditor Statistical Control EVERETT C. BROWN Cashier FRANK S. DELK Cost Control SARGENT C. ELLIOTT Purchasing JOHN P. M. JOHNSTON Administration WILLIAM T. BELL CHIARLES F. ALTHIOIF Membership lFlfillment RoY J. KLOCKENBRINK Supervisor of Accounts I)ELI.A M. HURT Advertising GILBERT G. LA GORCE, Director JOHN F. (ONNERY, Manager Chief Cartographer JAMES M. DARLEY CartographicStaff NEWMAN BUMSTEAD, Asst. Chief IRVIN E. ALLEMAN JOHN J. BREIIM WELLMAN CHAM BERLIN RICHARD DARLEY ATHOS ). GRAZZINI S APPHIA IIOLDSTOCK RALPH E. McALEERI WALTER K. MORRISON Typlogralpher C. E. RIDDIFORD Cartographic Artist WILLIAM PALMSTROM School Service RALPH GRAY, Clicf WILLIAM C. BAUGHMAN ENRIQUE C. CANOVA SCOTT IHART EDWARDS PARK News Service WINDSOR P. BOOTH, Chief LONNELLE AIKMAN Librarian ESTER ANN MANION JULIA F. BANKS, Asst. Printing Production IDEE JAMES ANDELILA JOE M. BARLETT Illustrations Editor WALTER MIEAYERS EDWARDS Assistant Illustrations Editors KiP ROSS ANI)REW I'OGGEN'POIL IIERBEHtT S. WILBURN, JR. Illustrations Staff CHARLES ALLMON ROBERT L. BREEDEN WILBUR E. (ARRETT LEONARD J. GRANT GILBERT M. GROSVENOR (li-FFORD I). IAMPSIIIRE (GERALDINE LINDER CAltO TII. WEIL, Librarian Staff . fist and Naturalist WALTER A. WEBER Staff photographerss B. ANTHONY STEWART, Chief WILLARD R. CU(ILVER JOHN E. l'IETCHIER BATES LITTLEHALES DONALD) M(cBAIN II ATHil E Rll VI JoslE:P,BAYLOR IROmERTr ROBERT F'.SISSON 'tOLKMAR W ENTZEI. MI. \VOODBRIDGE: W ILLIAMS ]'hotographic Laboratory EDWIN L. WIISERI), Chief RICHARD II. STEWART, Asst. Chief Film Editor JOSEPII M. RIIEOI T II I Copyright © 1957 by National Geographic Society, Washington, n. C . International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reservados todos los derechos. Printed in U. S. A. Entered at the Post Office at Washington, D. C., as Second Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postaEe provided for in Sec. 1103, Act of October 3. 1917, authorized July 1, 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.